Notes Style Sheet




    a cappella (italic) a cappella (roman)
    accelerando (roman) accelerando (italic)
    acknowledgment acknowledgement
    act 3 (etc.) Act 3, Act III
    African American (even when adjectival) African-American, Afro-American ("Leave open most compounds that include proper nouns, including names of ethnic groups. . . ."but:)
    Afro-Brazilian, Afro-Cuban Afro Brazilian, Afro Cuban ("If . . . the first term is shortened, use a hyphen":Turabian7, 20.3.2)
    Agnus Dei Agnus Dei, "Agnus Dei"
    Alleluia Alleluia, "Alleluia"
    Alleluia Pascha nostrum Alleluia Pascha nostrum, "Alleluia Pascha nostrum"
    Alma redemptoris mater [Hiley] Alma Redemptoris mater, "Alma redemptoris mater"
    alternatim (italic)
    alternatim (roman)
    Anonymous 4 (medieval theorist, or the musical group) Anonymous IV
    antiformulist anti-formulist
    Les Apaches (20th-cent. French composers, musicians, etc.) les apaches, Les apaches
    appendices appendixes
    arabic numeral Arabic numeral
    attacca (roman) attacca (italic)
    Ave Maria [Hiley] Ave Maria, "Ave Maria"
    Ave regina coelorum [Hiley] Ave Regina Coelorum, "Ave Regina Coelorum"
    bariolage (roman) bariolage (italic)
    barline bar line or bar-line
    baroque Baroque
    bass line bassline, bass-line
    basso continuo (roman) basso continuo (italic)
    basso sequente (italic) basso sequente (roman)
    Beach, Amy Marcy (Amy Marcy Beach) Mrs. H. H. A. Beach, Amy Beach, Amy Marcy Cheney Beach
    bel canto opera (leave open--CMS15, p. 304) bel-canto opera
    Benedictus Benedictus, "Benedictus"
    benefitted benefited
    biblical Biblical
    bibliographic bibliographical
    Bibliothèque nationale de France Bibliothèque nationale, Bibliothèque Nationale
    Biblioteca estense (Modena, Italy); Biblioteca estensee universitaria (Modena, Italy) Biblioteca Estense e Universitaria
    bicinium, bicinia (roman) bicinium, bicinia (italic)
    black Americans Black Americans
    Borodin, Aleksandr Aleksandr Porfir'evich, Alexander
    brass (instrument: use for singular and plural) brasses (pl.)
    Breitkopf & Härtel Breitkopf und Härtel
    breve (roman; Eng. form), brevis (italic; Latin) breve (italic), brevis (roman)
    C clef C-clef
    cambiata (roman), cambiatas (pl.) cambiata (italic), cambiate
    Cantor (specific title); cantor (generic use) used in Jewish and Latin-Christian liturgical music.See also Kantor
    cantus firmus, cantus firmi (roman) cantus firmus, cantus firmi (italic)
    catalog, cataloging (primary spellings in MW11) catalogue, cataloguing (secondary spellings in MW11)
    Catholic Church Catholic church
    CD (only in parenthetical references and bibliographic citations) compact disc
    cello violoncello, 'cello
    cellos celli, violoncelli
    checklist check-list, check list
    chiavette (italic) chiavette (roman)
    choirbook choir book, choir-book
    Frédéric Chopin Fryderyk Franciszek
    classic era Classic Era, classical era, Classical Era
    clausula (roman), clausulas (pl.) clausula (italic), clausulae (pl.)
    Clemens non Papa (use: Jacobus Clemens non Papa) Clemens non Papa
    codices codexes
    coedited co-edited
    col legno (italic) col legno (roman)
    compact disc / compact discs (in prose text) CD / CDs / CD's
    concertos concerti
    concerto grosso / concerti grossi (roman) concerto grosso / concerti grossi (italic)
    conductus /pl. conductus or conducti (roman; either plural is acceptable, but prefer conductus) conductus / conductus or conducti (italic)
    conjunto (italic) conjunto (roman)
    contemporaneous (i.e., actions or things happening at the same time) contemporary (i.e., current)
    the Continent (of Europe, capitalized as a noun), but continental tour, continental composers (not capitalized as adjective) the continent (of Europe)
    cornett, cornetts cornetto, cornetti
    Cracow Kraków
    Credo Credo, "Credo"
    cross section cross-section
    crossroad cross-road
    Cummings (E. E. Cummings) (CMS15, 8.6) e. e. cummings (but retain lower case if in cited titles, quotations, etc.)
    data set dataset
    Debussyan (MW11) Debussian
    Denkmäler (roman) Denkmäler (italic)
    des Prez (Josquin des Prez) Josquin des Pres, Desprez, Despres
    dialogue (primary spelling in MW11) dialog (secondary spelling in MW11)
    Divine Office divine office
    divisi (roman) divisi (italic)
    dominant seventh chord dominant-seventh chord
    Dorian dorian
    double bass double-bass, contrabass
    double stop double-stop
    Dufay (Guillaume Dufay) Guillaume Du Fay, du Fay
    Dunstable (John Dunstable) John Dunstaple
    Dur, Moll (i.e., C-Dur, c-Moll: Ger., major/minor) dur, moll
    electronic mailing list discussion group, listserve, listserv, mail list
    e-mail (CMS15, p. 305) E-mail, Email, email
    enquire, enquiry --SEE: inquire, inquiry
    ensure insure (Garner3reserved for what insurance companies do)
    equal temperament equal-temperament
    etude (but étude in French titles) étude
    Eulenburg (music publisher) Eulenberg
    Festschrift (roman), Festschriften (pl.) Festschrift, Festschrifts
    fêted feted
    field work field-work, fieldwork
    fin de siècle (roman, no hyphens, whether noun or adjective) fin-de-siècle, fin de siècle
    firsthand first-hand
    The Five (19th-cent. Russian composers) the five, The five
    flûte d'amour (roman) flûte d'amour (italic)
    flutist flautist
    flutter tonguing flutter-tonguing
    folk rock, folkrock
    folk song folk-song, folksong
    fortepiano forte-piano, forte piano
    Fraktur (roman) Fractur (italic)
    Frederick II of Prussia Friedrich II of Prussia
    French horn french horn
    frottola (roman), frottolas (pl.) frottola (italic),frottole (pl.)
    fuge (American hymnody) fugue
    fulfill fullfill
    full text (noun); full-text (adj.) full-text (noun); fulltext (noun or adj.)
    galant (style) gallant
    Gebrauchsmusik (roman) Gebrauchsmusik (italic); gebrauchsmusik
    Gesamtausgabe (roman, when used generically, but italic when used as a title); Gesamtausgaben (pl.) Gesamtausgabe (italic); gesamtausgabe
    Gesamtkunstwerk (roman) Gesamtkunstwerk (italic); gesamtkunstwerk
    Gesellschaft (roman) Gesellschaft (italic); gesellschaft
    Gloria Gloria, "Gloria"
    Glière (Reinhold Glière) Reinhold Moritsevich
    Gluck (Christoph Willibald Gluck) Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck
    Gounod (Charles Gounod) Charles-François
    Great Depression; the Depression (CMS17, 8.75) the Depression; the great depression
    half century (as noun; CMS14, p. 227) half-century
    half note (as noun; half-note as adj.) half-note
    Hapsburg Habsburg
    hardback, hardbound, but hard copy (MW11) hard back, hard bound, hardcopy
    a historic an historic
    historic timbres historical timbres
    home page (on the WWW, as in MW11) homepage
    hundred: two hundred songs two-hundred songs
    hymntune hymn tune, hymn-tune
    Isaac, Heinrich (Heinrich Isaac) Henricus Isaac
    indexes indices
    Ingenta ingenta
    inquire, inquiry enquire, enquiry (chiefly British)
    instrument maker instrument-maker
    insure -- SEE: ensure
    Internet (CMS15, 7.81) internet
    italianate Italianate
    Jacobus Clemens non Papa Clemens non Papa
    Javascript (generic) JavaScript (particular product)
    JavaScript (particular product) Javascript (generic)
    judgment judgement
    Kantor (the head musician of a German Protestant church, e.g., J. S. Bach at church of St. Thomas in Leipzig) see also Cantor
    Kapellmeister (roman) Kapellmeister (italic), kapellmeister
    kbps (kilobits per second; measure data transfer speed) KBPS, Kbps
    Klangfarbenmelodie (italic) Klangfarbenmelodie (roman)
    Kleinmeister (italic) Kleinmeister (roman), kleinmeister
    Kritischer Bericht (midsentence) kritischer Bericht
    Kyrie Kyrie, "Kyrie"
    lacunae lacunas
    Lamentations (musical setting) lamentations
    ländler Ländler, Ländler
    Lasso (Orlando di Lasso) Orlandus Lassus; Orlande de Lassus; Lassus
    Lauds lauds
    late-nineteenth-century (adjective) late nineteenth-century (adjective)
    late nineteenth century (noun) late nineteenth-century (noun)
    leitmotif, leitmotifs leitmotiv, leitmotivs
    Léonin Leoninus, Magister Leoninus, Leonius
    Leuven Louvain
    Libreria musicale italiana Libreria Musicale Italiana
    librettos libretti
    lied, lieder Lied, Lieder
    liedeken (italic) liedeken (roman)
    litany; Litany of Loreto Litany; litany of Loreto
    literati (roman) literati (italic)
    longstanding long-standing
    longtime long-time
    loose-leaf loose leaf, looseleaf
    maestros maestri
    Magnificat Magnificat, magnificat, "Magnificat"
    maître de chappellemaître de musique (italic) maître de chappelle; maître de musique (roman)
    maker, making (preceded by a music word, e.g., music making, violin maker) Always open as a noun; closed as an adjective preceding a noun: guitar-making career, but career as a guitar maker) as a noun, do not close (musicmaking) or use hyphen (violin-maker)
    makeup make-up
    manuscript of the composition manuscript for [or to] the composition
    Mass, Masses (rite) mass, masses
    master class masterclass, master-class
    Matins matins
    MB (megabyte) Mb, mb
    medieval Medieval
    Medtner (Nikolay Medtner) Nikolai, Nikolay/i Karlovich, Nicholas Medtner, Metner
    method methodology
    mezzo-soprano mezzo soprano, mezzo
    midcentury mid-century
    Middle Ages middle ages
    Mixolydian mixolydian
    more important more importantly
    motive motif
    MS Ms. or ms.
    MSS Mss. or mss.
    multilevel multi-level
    music analysis musical analysis
    music examples musical examples
    music making musicmaking, music-making
    music manuscript musical manuscripts
    music sources musical sources
    music training musical training
    Musica Britannica (series) Musica britannica, Musica britannica
    musica ficta (roman) musica ficta (italic)
    musical culture music culture
    musical heritage music heritage
    musical instrument music instrument
    musical life music life
    musical structure music structure
    musical style music style
    musical text music text
    musical tradition music tradition
    music making musicmaking, music-making
    naïve; naïveté naive; naivete, naiveté
    neoclassicism Neoclassicism, neo-classicism
    norteño (italic) norteño (roman)
    note value note-value
    note-head note head, notehead
    Nunc dimittis (per MW11) Nunc Dimittis, Nunc dimittis
    obbligato (roman), obbligatos obbligato (italic), obbligati
    oboe d'amore (roman) oboe d'amore (italic)
    offbeat (such as "offbeat rhythms") off-beat
    Office (rite); Office of Matins office
    ondes Martenot ondes martenot, Ondes Martenot, ondes Martenot
    online on-line
    oeuvre (sing. unless referring to more than one composer; spell out "oe" in English prose--use ligature only for French titles and quotations) oeuvres, oeuvre (italic)
    onward onwards
    opera (plural of opus) opuses
    opera buffa (sing.; roman); opere buffe (pl.; italic) [but if in the same paragraph/article/review, use italics for both] opera buffa (sing.; italic); opere buffe (pl.; roman)
    opéra comique (roman) opéra comique (italic)
    opera seria (sing.; roman); opere serie (pl.; italic) [but if in the same paragraph/article/review, use italics for both] opera seria (sing.; italic); opere serie (pl.; roman)
    opera omnia; Opera omnia (if title) Opera Omnia
    Ordinary (liturgy) ordinary
    ostinatos ostinati
    page turn page-turn, pageturn
    Paris Conservatoire; the Conservatoire; the conservatory Paris Conservatory; the conservatoire; the Conservatory
    Paris Opéra; the Opéra Paris opéra; the opéra; Paris Opera; the Opera
    partbook part book, part-book
    part writing part-writing
    passage-work passage work
    passim (roman) passim (italic)
    Passion (musical work) passion
    pedalboard (to parallel keyboard) pedal-board, pedal board
    Pérotin Perotinus, Perotinus Magnus
    per se (roman) per se (italic)
    perpetuum mobile (italic) perpetuum mobile (roman)
    Petrarch Francesco Petrarca
    Petrucci (Ottaviano Petrucci) Ottaviano dei Petrucci, Ottaviano de' Petrucci
    piano-vocal score piano/vocal score. "A slash most commonly signifies alternatives" (CMS17, 6.106), as in flute/violin (flute or violin)
    pitch class pitch-class
    post-neoclassical style post neoclassical style; post-neoclassical-style
    postromantic Postromantic, post-Romantic, post-romantic
    premiere première
    present-day present day
    problematic problematical
    program programme
    Prokofiev (Sergey Prokofiev) Sergei Prokofiev, Prokofieff
    proofread proof read, proof-read
    Proper (liturgy) proper
    psalm; Psalm 21 Psalm; psalm 21
    public is.... (usually takes a singular verb in American English) public are.... (usually takes a plural verb in British English)
    quarter-tones quarter tones
    Rachmaninoff (Sergei Rachmaninoff) Sergey Vasilyevich, Sergey or Serge, Rachmaninov or Rakhmaninov
    raison d'être (roman, with circumflex) raison d'etre, raison d'être (italic)
    re-bar, re-barring rebar (used to reinforce concrete), rebarring
    reevaluate re-evaluate
    reexamine re-examine
    Regina caeli [Hiley] Regina caeli, "Regina caeli"
    Répertoire international des sources musicales (RISM) (this is a series, and therefore roman; note title capitalization in the French style) Répertoire international des sources musicales, Répertoire International des Sources Musicales
    Requiem (roman) Requiem (italic)
    reprint repr. (do not abbreviate)
    rerelease re-release
    Revisionsbericht (roman) Revisionsbericht (italic)
    Rimsky-Korsakov (Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov) Nikolay (or Nikolai) Andreyevich (or Andreievich)
    ripieno (roman) ripieno (italic)
    Roman chant roman chant
    roman typeface, roman numeral, roman alphabet Roman typeface, Roman numeral, Roman alphabet
    romantic Romantic
    romanticism Romanticism
    Rossini (Gioacchino Rossini) Giachino, Giacchino
    Salve regina [Hiley] Salve regina [or Regina], "Salve Regina"
    Sanctorale sanctorale, Sanctorale
    Sanctus Sanctus, "Sanctus"
    scena (roman) scena (italic)
    Schoenberg (Arnold Schoenberg, 1874–1951) Arnold Schönberg
    Schönberg (Claude-Michel Schönberg, b. 1944) Claude-Michel Schoenberg
    scordatura (roman) scordatura (italic)
    score of the composition score for [or to] the composition
    Scriabin, Aleksandr (Aleksandr Scriabin) Skryabin, Alexander Nikolai[y]evich
    scrittura (italic) scrittura (roman)
    Seeger (Ruth Crawford Seeger) Ruth Crawford
    seicento Seicento
    settecento Settecento
    semiannual (twice per year) biannual
    shape note (noun; shape-note for adj.) shape-note, shapenote
    shelf mark shelfmark, shelf-mark
    Shostakovich (Dmitrii Shostakovich) Dmitri, Dmitry [or Dmitri] Dmitri[y]evich
    [sic] (italic) [sic] (roman)
    sight-singing sight singing, sightsinging
    siglum / sigla (roman) siglum / sigla (italic)
    silent-film music silent film music
    Siloti (Alexander Siloti)
    Alexandr Siloti, Aleksandr Il'yich Ziloti
    simile (italic) (musical term) simile
    sinfonia (italic) sinfonia (roman)
    sinfonia concertante / sinfonie concertanti (roman) sinfonia concertante / sinfonie concertanti (italic)
    Singspiel (roman); Singspiele (pl.) Singspiel / Singspiele, singspiel, singspiels
    Les Six (20th-cent. French composers) les six, Les six
    soca (roman) soca (italic)
    sonata-like sonatalike
    songbook song-book, song book
    song cycle song-cycle, songcycle
    sound track (noun, MW11), but "sound-track recording" (adjective) soundtrack
    souterliedeken (italic) souterliedeken (roman)
    Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin--Preußischer Kulturbesitz (N.B.: not "Preussischer") Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin Preußischer Kulturbesitz; Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin "Preußischer Kulturbesitz"
    Stabat mater (NGD2, MGG2) Stabat Mater, "Stabat Mater"
    staff, staves stave, staffs
    stagecraft stage-craft, stage craft
    Sturm und Drang (roman, and always open, even before a noun) Sturm und Drang, "Sturm und Drang"
    style analysis stylistic analysis
    sul ponticello (italic) sul ponticello (roman)
    sul tasto (italic) sul tasto (roman)
    Susato (Tielman Susato) Tylman, Tilman, Teelman
    Tchaikovsky (Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky) Piotr, Pyotr; Il'ich, Il'yich, Ilych; Chaikovsky, Chaikovskii
    Te Deum Te Deum, "Te Deum"
    Temporale temporale, Temporale
    tempos tempi
    Tenebrae Tenebrae, tenebrae
    text incipit text-incipit
    text setting text-setting
    theater theatre
    [equally] thought-provoking is / are . . . (closed before verbs followed by the modified noun) [equally] thought provoking is / are . . .
    time signature time-signature
    timpani tympani, tympany
    title page title-page, titlepage
    topos (roman) topos (italic)
    totaling totalling
    toward (preferred form in American English) towards (prevalent in British English)
    traveling travelling
    trecento Trecento
    tropicalismo (italic) tropicalismo; Tropicalismo (roman); Tropicalismo
    Les Troyens (Berlioz) Les troyens
    tunebook tune-book, tune book
    twelve-tone row twelve tone row
    typesetting type-setting, type setting
    typographical error typo
    under way (if meaning "in progress") underway
    unfocused unfocussed
    unicum, unica (roman) unicum, unica (italic)
    urtext Urtext, Urtexturtext
    US, USA, UK, USSR U.S., U.S.A., U.K., U.S.S.R.
    Vespers vespers
    vesper psalms Vesper Psalms, Vesper psalms
    viola d'amore, da gamba, etc. (roman); plural: viole d'amore viola d'amore (italic); plural: violas d'amore, viola d'amores
    violin I, II violin 1, 2
    virtuoso, pl. virtuosos virtuoso, pl. virtuosi
    voice leading voice-leading
    WAV (Waveform Audio; computer file) WAVE, Wave, wav, .wav
    Web (for World Wide Web) (CMS15, 7.81) web, WWW
    Webmaster webmaster, Web master, web master
    Web page (CMS15, 7.81) Webpage, web page, webpage
    Web site (CMS15, 7.81) Website, web site, website
    Web zine Webzine, web zine, webzine
    whole step whole-step
    whole tone (noun) whole-tone
    whole-tone scale (adjective) whole tone scale
    Wisc. (Wisconsin) (use WI in bibliographic citations) Wis.
    word painting word-painting
    worklist work list, work-list
    World War I (or II) World War 1 (or 2)
    worldwide world-wide