Types of Compositions for Use in Music Uniform Titles: A Manual for Use with AACR2 Chapter 25

This document is for historical purposes only. For the current list of types of composition, please see "Types of Composition for Use in Authorized Access Points for Music : A Manual for Use with RDA"

Introduction to the 2nd, updated edition

The Bibliographic Control Committee of the Music Library Association decided, following its annual meeting in 1995, to revitalize the Working Group on Types of Compositions. During this meeting a number of music catalogers expressed interest in having a number of terms added to the list as well as having it available electronically via the World Wide Web. The former members of the working group agreed to pick up where they left off in 1992 and to update the list.
The list's popularity was evidenced by the number of copies distributed through the MLA Clearinghouse and by its publication in MLAJ, the Music Library Association of Japan's newsletter (v. 16, no. 3). The present updated list replaces the 1992 edition in its entirety.
The Working Group hopes the music cataloging community continues to find this a useful addition to its collection of working tools.
Since 2002, the list has been maintained and updated chiefly by A. Ralph Papakhian (Indiana University), Chuck Herrold (Carnegie Library), Mark Scharff (Washington University in St. Louis), Michelle Koth (Yale University), Morris Levy (Northwestern University), and Phyllis Jones (Oberlin College). Sue Stancu (Indiana University), currently active, and Terry Simpkins (Middlebury College), previously involved, have also contributed to the maintenance of the list. The music catalogers at the Library of Congress have helped greatly in determining the treatment of new terms.
We acknowledge the hard work and dedication our colleague and friend, Ralph Papakhian (1948-2010), who was a strong advocate for the creation of this list.

Preface

The question of what constitutes the name of a "type of musical composition" (referred to in this preface as a "generic title") became especially important to music catalogers with the advent of AACR2 and its provision that (except when necessary to resolve conflicts) distinctive titles would not be qualified by medium, numeral, or key, and that generic titles (with one exception) would be indicated in the plural. It was consequently very necessary to be able to distinguish between generic and distinctive titles. Uniform titles could no longer be constructed without first knowing with which kind of title one was dealing. 

Many titles are obviously types of composition, e.g., names of musical forms or genres (sonata, symphony, concerto), tempo designations (adagio, allegro), and standard combinations of instruments (trio, quartet). And conversely, many truly distinctive titles are obviously so, e.g., "Nozze di Figaro," "Appalachian Spring." But, it is just as obvious that many titles are ambiguous and difficult to categorize. Included in this third category are titles that look like generic titles, but that are not defined in reference sources as types of musical compositions, e.g., piece or divertissement. Some of these terms may be treated as types of composition if they are so used by enough composers; others may not. Deciding what language to use further complicates the decision. If a type of composition has cognates in English, French, German, and Italian, the accepted English form (even if adopted from another of these languages) is used, regardless of how the composer spelled it. For instance "symphony" is used, not symphonie, Sinfonie, or sinfonia; thus, the cataloger must know if the term is generic in order to know what language to use. For those types of compositions without cognates in the four languages, one must ascertain what language the composer originally used and the plural in that language. For instance, the cataloger would use "piece" for works of an American composer and "Fantasien" for works of a German composer (assuming those were the terms originally used by the composers).
Music catalogers have been dealing with these incongruities for quite some time. Some specific problems have been addressed by the Library of Congress through rule interpretations and music cataloging decisions, but LC has not made a thorough-going attack on the problem. For instance, "composition" and "piece" were deemed types of compositions because they were definitely not distinctive and were used by many composers. "Composition," having cognates in the four languages, is used in the English form and plural, but "piece," not having cognates in all four languages, is not.
The Bibliographic Control Committee of the Music Library Association decided to provide some guidance to music catalogers, thus attempting to eliminate the necessity of each cataloger making his or her own decision on each kind of title, a practice that has resulted in a multitude of solutions, much inaction, and a great deal of inconsistency. The Committee charged its Subcommittee on Descriptive Cataloging (Jennifer Bowen, Chair) to develop a list of terms that might be considered types of composition and to develop a research methodology of determining the status of these terms. A working group of four people (the editors of this publication) was formed to coordinate a group of volunteers from the membership of MLA who researched the use of these titles in music reference sources, Library of Congress documentation (AACR2, Library of Congress Rule Interpretations, and Music Cataloging Decisions), the Library of Congress Name Authority File, and LC MARC cataloging. The working group then checked and refined this research, using the above tools (in particular the Terminorum Musicae Index Septem Linguis Redactus), the result of which was the list of generic and distinctive titles that was published in the November 1989 issue of the Music Cataloging Bulletin. The decision was then made to expand the list with new terms and to created an extensive alphabetical list that would include explanations of the use of certain terms, scope notes, all distinctive terms that might be considered generic, and cognates of the generic titles in six major European languages (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Russian), as well as selected terms in other languages. What you have before you is the result of this process.

Principles of the list

The following list of terms that are either "types of compositions" or "distinctive titles" (AACR2 Rev. 25.27A1, footnote 10) includes equivalent terms in English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish, and in some cases, Czech, Dutch, Hungarian, Latin, and Polish. The list is not exhaustive. 

Terms identified as "types" and their plurals are listed in boldface type, followed by the designation "Type" and language. These terms should be used in the plural if a composer has written more than one composition of that type. If a term is followed by a note beginning "use..." and has no plural listed, it is a cognate of another term, and the cataloger should refer to that term to determine its usage.

Terms that are "distinctive" are given only in the singular, followed by the designation "Distinctive" in boldface type and language. 
Many terms include a brief explanation of their usage. It is essential to read this information before constructing a uniform title. 
When available, LCCNs and LCNAF numbers are included as illustrations of the use of the terms. Users of this list are cautioned against making decisions based solely on these examples.
The list must be used in conjunction with accepted cataloging tools: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd ed., Rev. (AACR2) and Library of Congress Rule Interpretations (LCRIs). Throughout this list there are many references to elements contained in these tools. To facilitate use of the list, excerpts from the most frequently cited are included below.
Neither this list, nor the excerpts below, are substitutes for cataloging tools.

  1. LCRI 25.27A
    1. All modifiers other than medium or numeral make the phrase a distinctive title--no matter how common sounding it is.
  2. LCRI 25.27A1, footnote 10
    1. When a composer uses a word which is normally the name of a type of composition as the title of a work which is definitely not a work of the type designated by the word, do not consider the title to be the name of a type of composition.
  3. LCRI 25.29A (Liturgical titles)
    1. Give Latin liturgical titles (e.g., "Gloria," "Salve," "Te Deum") in the singular. Exception: Use "Magnificats" and "Requiems" when appropriate. Apply 25.30B1, and do not normally include a statement of medium of performance.
  4. 25.30A1 (Combination terms)
    1. Combination terms ("Theme and variations," "Prelude and fugue") do not appear on this list and are addressed in 25.30A1: if the initial title element consists solely of the name of a type, or of two or more types, make additions to it as instructed in 25.30B-25.30E (use the original language). From the Music Cataloging Bulletin v. 13, no. 9, 4th question under LC correspondence: All titles consisting of the names of two or more types of compositions do not qualify as cognate forms to be converted to the accepted English forms of name in accordance with 25.29A1 which limits such conversions to titles consisting solely of the name of one type of composition. Such titles will, however, require a statement of medium of performance in accordance with 25.30B1.
  5. 25.29A1 (Cognates)
    1. If the initial title element resulting from the application of 25.27 and 25.28 consists solely of the name of one type of composition, use the accepted English form of name if there are cognate forms in English, French, German, and Italian, or if the same name is used in all these languages. Give the name in the plural (this may be a non-English plural form, e.g., divertimenti) unless the composer wrote only one work of the type.

Diacritics

Several diacritics are not available as text, only as images, in Web format. When a term includes a diacritic that is not available, the affected letters in the term will be linked to its image in this section of the document.
  •  These two letters should have a ligature over them.
  •  These two letters should have a ligature over them.
  •  These two letters should have a ligature over them.
  •  These two letters should have a ligature over them.
  •  These letters should have a ligature over them.
  •  These letters should have a ligature over them.

There should be a miagkii znak (not available as an image) at the apostrophe (representing the miagkii znak) from which this is linked. The miagkii znak occupies a space rather than appearing over a letter. A miagkii znak can appear in the following languages appearing in this document: Russian

Use of "double," "triple," etc. in titles of musical works

“ ... it would be a mistake to try to draw any hard and fast conclusions about the treatment of words like "double," "triple," etc. in titles of musical works, since they may have various meanings. In the case of "double concertos," etc., we felt the need for a Music Cataloging Decision because in the past honest differences of opinion had led to inconsistent results. Those who feel that "Double concerto" should not be treated as distinctive argue that "double" implies medium of performance and hence should be omitted from the initial title element under 25.28A, while the majority feel that this is stretching the meaning of "statement of medium of performance" too far. These differences of opinion still exist, but now that we have agreed on a policy and stated it in an MCD we may expect to have more consistency... Titles like "Double quartet" present a rather different situation. Ordinarily a double concerto is indeed a type of concerto, but a double quartet is not a quartet but an octet. Therefore we have never hesitated to treat such titles as distinctive. On the other hand, we seem to have been consistent in treating "Double fugue" as the name of a type of composition... Obviously "double" has an entirely different meaning in this case, one which has no medium-of-performance implications at all. Hence none of us seem to have given serious consideration to treating "double fugue" as distinctive. These different uses of the words "double," "triple," etc., really have little relation to one another, and it would be a mistake, I believe, to try to make any general statement about the use of such words in uniform titles..."
Communication from Richard Hunter, Mar. 7, 1991; used with permission. This represents Richard Hunter's personal opinion and is not an official Library of Congress statement.

Submitting terms for consideration

Do you have a term or title that is being treated inconsistently or about which you are uncertain? Feel free to submit new terms or titles for consideration to Michelle Koth by e-mail (michelle.koth@yale.edu) or US mail (Yale Music Library, PO Box 208240, New Haven, CT 06520-8240). Any supporting citations or documentation you can provide will be appreciated.

A
  • Adagietto/Adagiettos
    • TYPE (Italian) LCCN 85-755458
  • Adagio/Adagios
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n 90716174
  • Agnus Dei
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); fifth item of Ordinary of Mass. LCNAF n 2001063695
  • Aire/Aires
    • TYPE (English)
  • Air/Airs
    • TYPE (English); a vocal or instrumental tune. LCCN 85754672
  • Al'bom
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Album
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, French, German)
  • Álbum
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Album leaf
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Albumblatt
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n 95009104
  • Albumblad
    • DISTINCTIVE LCCN 93701574
  • Albumleaf
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Allegretto/Allegrettos
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n 88643389
  • Allegro/Allegros
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n 90666998
  • Alleluia
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Alleluja
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Alleluya
    • DISTINCTIVE LCCN 95750144
  • Andante/Andantes
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n81-81233
  • Andantino/Andantinos
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n86-867322
  • Anglaise/Anglaises
    • TYPE (English, French, German); a late Baroque dance movement in a harpsichord or orchestra suite; also used loosely to refer to any of the English dance types popular during the late 17th century; use for anglez, inglesa, inglese.
  • Anthem/Anthems
    • TYPE (English); a choral setting (in English) of a religious or moral text; frequently used as a conventional collective title. Do not include medium of performance when the anthem is for chorus, with or without instrumental accompaniment, as it is the implied medium, LCCN 96-706257. Include medium of performance in all other cases. LCNAF n87-139957.
  • Antifon
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Antifona
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Antífona
    • DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian, Spanish)
  • Antiphon
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, German) LCCN 82761300
  • Arabesca
  • Arabesque/Arabesques
    • TYPE (English, French); use for arabesca, arabesco, arabeska, Arabeske. LCNAF n81-82730
  • Aria/Arias
    • TYPE (English, French, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for Arie, ariia. LCCN 90751615
  • Arie
    • (German); use aria
  • Arietta/Ariettas
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian, Russian); use for arieta, ariette. LCCN 85753723
  • Ariette
  • Ariettina/Ariettinas
    • TYPE (English)
  • Arioso/Ariosos
    • TYPE (English); a piece in a songlike style; use for vocal and instrumental works and short arias so titled not part of a larger recitative. LCCN 87753030
  • Armonia
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 96702694
  • Armonía
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Aubade/Aubades
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a piece of morning music; counterpart of serenade or nocturne; use for Aube. Note: Poulenc's Aubade is considered to be distinctive. See LCRI 25.27A1, footnote 10. LCNAF n91-101570
  • Aube
  • Ave Maria
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); LCNAF no 98019175
  • Ayre/Ayres
    • TYPE (English); LCCN 95-704833
B
  • Bagatelle/Bagatelles
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for bagatela, bagatell, bagatella. LCNAF n81-133634
  • Balada/Baladas
    • TYPE (Russian, Spanish); vocal work; do not confuse with ballata; for instrumental baladas use ballade.
  • Ballad/Ballads
    • TYPE (English); type of folksong or art song in a folk style; when a vocal work, see song for treatment. LCNAF no2003051743
  • Ballada
    • (Hungarian, Russian); use ballade for instrumental works so named.
  • Ballade/Ballades
    • TYPE (English, French, German); vocal work; form fixe of 14th- to 15th-century France; also an instrumental piece in narrative style; when given as the title to art songs from the 19th and 20th centuries, see song for treatment (LCNAF n 98027855); do not confuse with the instrumental ballade. LCNAF nr2005007141
  • Ballade/Ballades
    • TYPE (English, French, German); an instrumental work (usually for piano) in a narrative style; do not confuse with the vocal ballade; use for instrumental works titled balada, ballada, ballata. LCNAF n 83131636
  • Ballata/Ballatas
    • TYPE (Italian); Italian dance song; do not confuse with balada; for instrumental ballatas use ballade. LCNAF n79-31582
  • Ballett/Balletts
    • TYPE (English); a late 16th-/early 17th-century English part-song using nonsense refrains. Use for works of English origin or influence. 
  • Balletto/Balletti
    • TYPE (Italian); a 15th-century Italian dance; a late 16th-/early 17th-century Italian part-song using nonsense refrains; use for works of Italian origin or influence; a late 16th-century Italian instrumental dance. LCNAF n89-631472
  • Basse danse
    • TYPE (English, French, Spanish); the principal court dance during the late Middle Ages and Renaissance; use for bassa danza, bassadanza, basdans.
  • Beguine/Beguines
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian, Spanish); a social dance popular in Europe and American from the 1930s, with a rhythm similar to that of the bolero; use for béguine, bigin, biguine. LCNAF nr00-36825
  • Berceuse/Berceuses
    • TYPE (French); a quiet song in triple meter or a character piece for instruments. LCNAF n87-826083
  • Bicinium/Bicinia
    • TYPE (Latin); a two-voice work for voices, instruments, or keyboard. Generally used as a conventional collective title. LCCN 92-753341
  • Blues
    • TYPE (English); use for works employing a 12-bar structure, using flattened 3rds and 7ths; also use when the title indicates a blues-type mood rather than a strict adherence to the 12-bar form. LCNAF n 2005089844
  • Boceto
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Bolero/Boleros
    • TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian, Russian, Spanish) LCNAF n81-22437
  • Boléro
  • Bossa nova
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Portuguese) LCNAF no98-40808
  • Bourrée/Bourrées
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for boree, burre. LCNAF n94-111318
  • Boutade
    • TYPE (French); 18th-century term for a dance or whole ballet in a fanciful and playful style; the name given to an improvised piece of instrumental music, which, if written down, would have been given the title caprice or fantaisie; use for butada. LCNAF no98-55664
  • Brano da concerto
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Burla/Burlas
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian); a humorous instrumental piece. LCNAF n 2010021375
  • Burlesca
  • Burlesque/Burlesques
    • TYPE (English, French); use for burlesca, burleska, Burleske, burleszk. LCNAF n82-271068
C
  • Cadence
    • (French); use cadenza when used as the title of an independent work.
  • Cadencia
    • (Spanish); use cadenza when used as the title of an independent work.
  • Cadenza/Cadenzas
    • TYPE (English, Italian); use as a type only when applied to the title of an independent work; not considered a type of composition when applied to cadenzas within concertos; use for Cadence, Cadencia, Kadenz. LCNAF n 8263348. Also used as a collective title for collections of a composer's cadenzas written to accompany three or more separate concertos, etc., by the same or other composers. LCCN 86751371
  • Canarie
  • Canario
    • (Italian, Spanish); use canary.
  • Canary/Canaries
    • TYPE (English); a form of dance and music popular in Europe from the mid-16th to mid-18th centuries; use for canarie, canario. LCNAF no 98001482
  • Canción/Canciónes
    • TYPE (Spanish); See song for treatment. Use for collections and works specifically titled by the composer, e.g., Revueltas, Silvestre, 1899-1940. [Canciónes, orchestra accompaniment]; Botto, Carlos, 1923-2004. [Canciónes, op. 4]; LCNAF n 2005015454; apply LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10 to instrumental works. LCNAF no 97080154
  • Canon/Canons
    • TYPE (English, French, Spanish); use for canone, Kanon, kánon. LCNAF n90-604188
  • Canone
  • Cantabile/Cantabiles
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Kantabile. LCNAF n81-24681
  • Cantata/Cantatas
    • TYPE (English, Italian); usually used as a conventional collective title; use for cantate, Kantate. LCNAF n81-14379; LCNAF n92-54003
  • Cantate
    • (French); use cantata (for conventional uniform titles only)
  • Canticle/Canticles
    • TYPE (English); use as a type for vocal works only; use for cantico, cántico, Canticum, cantique, kantikum. LCNAF n79-121995
  • Cantiga/Cantigas
    • TYPE (Spanish); a medieval Iberian monophonic song; generally used as a conventional uniform title; use for kantiga.
  • Cantilena
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 86-755421
  • Cantilène
    • DISTINCTIVE (French) LCCN 86-750118
  • Cantione
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Canto/Canti/Cantos
    • TYPE (English, Italian); use as a type when applied to vocal works, see song for treatment. Use for collections and works specifically titled by the composer, LCNAF no2003080633; apply LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10 to instrumental works. LCNAF n 2007077432
  • Cantus
    • DISTINCTIVE (Latin) LCCN 86-751532
  • Canzon
    • (Italian); alternate spelling of canzona; use canzona.
  • Canzona/Canzonas
    • TYPE (English, Italian, Spanish); originally a Provençal troubadour song; later, a piece of 16th-century Italian secular music, 16th- to 17th-century instrumental work; in this usage, not a cognate of canzone; use canzona when a work of this type was originally titled canzone. LCNAF n87-110288
  • Canzone/Canzoni
    • TYPE (Italian); an 18th- and 19th-century song-like work for voice or instruments. In this usage, not a cognate of canzona. See song for treatment. Also, an alternate spelling of canzona above; use canzona for a work of this type.
  • Canzonet/Canzonets
    • TYPE (English); late 16th-century English part-song; use for works of English origin or influence. LCNAF n81-5621
  • Canzonetta/Canzonettas
    • TYPE (English, Italian); late 16th-century Italian part-song; also used for solo songs and instrumental pieces of a songlike nature; use for cançoneta, canzoneta, canzonette, kantsonetta, Kanzonette. LCNAF n89-646645
  • Capriccetto/Capriccetti
    • TYPE (English) LCNAF no98-46131
  • Capriccio/Capriccios
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian, Spanish); use this form when it is the composer's original title; not not use caprice or capricho unless the composer specified it as the original title; use for capricio, kaprichchio. LCNAF n 86860139
  • Caprice/Caprices
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use this for when it is the composer's original title; do not use capriccio or capricho unless the composer specified it as the original title; use for kaprichch, Kaprice, kaprisa, Kaprize. LCNAF n81-22436
  • Capricette/Capricetten
    • TYPE (German) LCCN 79-771124
  • Capricho / Caprichos
    • TYPE (Spanish); use this form when it is the composer's original title; do not use capriccio or caprice unless the composer specified it as the original title. LCCN no 00062227
  • Carmen/Carmina
    • TYPE (Latin); word used during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance to refer to various kinds of vocal music and to instrumental music derived from vocal chansons. LCNAF n 91037186
  • Carol/Carols
    • TYPE (English) LCNAF n87-130699
  • Catch/Catches
    • TYPE (English); an English round for 3 voices; generally used as a collective uniform title. LCCN 89-751455
  • Cavatina/Cavatinas
    • TYPE (English, Italian, Spanish); originally signified a short opera aria; now an aria-like vocal piece or a song-like instrumental work; use for independent works titled as such, not for individual cavatinas within operas; use for cavatine, kavatina, Kavatine. LCNAF n94-71214
  • Chacarera/Chacareras
    • TYPE (Spanish); Argentine couple dance. LCNAF nr2004007876
  • Chaconne/Chaconnes
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for chacona, chacony, chakona, ciaccona, ciacona.
  • Chamber concerto
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 83-752805
  • Chamber sonata
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Chamber symphony
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCNAF n 2003085983
  • Chanson/Chansons
    • TYPE (French); a term meaning song in all its uses; spanning a wide range of periods and genres from the troubadour/trouvère repertoires through the secular polyphony of the 14th to 16th centuries to the art song of the 19th and 20th centuries and folk and popular song of all eras. See song for treatment. Use for miscellaneous sets, e.g., Le Jeune, Claude. [Chansons. Selections] or specific collections, e.g., Ravel, Maurice. [Chansons. Nicolette], Janequin, Clément. [Chansons (1528). Réveillez vous, cueurs endormis]; apply LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10 to instrumental works. LCNAF n92-188
  • Chant/Chants
    • TYPE (English, French); use as a type when applied to vocal works, see song for treatment. Use for collections and works specifically titled by the composer; apply LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10 to instrumental works. LCCN n 2005025773
  • Chœur
  • Choral
  • Choralbearbeitung/Choralbearbeitungen
    • TYPE (German); a vocal or instrumental composition based on a pre-existing sacred melody; do not apply 25.30B1a exception. LCNAF n2008018787
  • Chorale/Chorales
    • TYPE (English); use for Choral, coral, corale, khoral. LCNAF n87-810276
  • Chorinho/Chorinhos
    • TYPE (Spanish); various meanings in Brazilian popular music, generically denoting urban instrumental ensemble music, often with one group member as a soloist, consisted mostly of dances of European origin performed at popular festivities; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also choro.
  • Choro/Choros
    • TYPE (Spanish); various meanings in Brazilian popular music, generically denoting urban instrumental ensemble music, often with one group member as a soloist, consisted mostly of dances of European origin performed at popular festivities; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also chorinho.
  • Chorus/Choruses
    • TYPE (English); use for Chor, chœur, coro, khor. LCNAF n 84012213
  • Composition/Compositions
    • TYPE (English, French); usually used in reference to the process of creating a musical work: also used as a title for an independent work; use for composición, composizione, Komposition, kompozitsiia. LCNAF n88-667940
  • Concert piece
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 86-754853
  • Concertino/Concertinos
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n88-643187
  • Concerto/Concertos
    • TYPE (English, French, Italian); use for concierto, kontsert, Konzert. LCNAF n87-801353
  • Concerto da camera
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 89-755372
  • Concerto grosso/Concerti grossi
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n87-803133
  • Concertone/Concertoni
    • TYPE (English); a rarely-used term meaning "large concerto," the form closely approximates the symphonie concertante; use for Konchertone, Konzertone.
  • Concertpiece
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 89-751073
  • Concertstück
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n88-669977
  • Conductus
    • TYPE (Latin); a medieval vocal work for one or more voices; usually used as a collective uniform title.
  • Conga/Congas
    • TYPE (English) Latin-American dance in 2/4 meter with a repeated two-measure rhythmic pattern. LCNAF no2012108109
  • Coro
    • (Italian, Spanish); use chorus.
  • Cortège/Cortèges
    • Type (English, French) LCCN 96-703525
  • Cracoviana
  • Cracovienne
  • Credo
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); third item in the Ordinary of Mass.
D
  • Dance/Dances
    • TYPE (English); use for danse, danza, tánc, tanets, taniec, Tanz. LCNAF n82-101545
  • Danse
  • Danza/Danzas
    • TYPE (Spanish); the particular genre of salon music for piano developed in Puerto Rico in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Do not translate to "dance" in the preferred title; for all others, use dance. LCNAF n88-632472
  • Danza
    • (Italian); when danza refers to the particular genre of salon music for piano developed in Puerto Rico in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, use Danza and do not translate to "dance" in the uniform title; for all others, use dance.
  • Danzón
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish); Cuban dance form; do not translate to "dance" in uniform title.
  • Decet/Decets
    • TYPE (English); a work for ten players; use for decimette, decimino, dectet, detsimet, Dezett, dixtuor, tentet. LCNAF n 2010022354
  • Decimette
  • Decimino
  • Dectet
  • Dezett
  • Dialog
    • DISTINCTIVE (German, Russian) LCNAF n00-065837
  • Dialogo
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 90-753421
  • Diálogo
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish) 
  • Dialogue
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, French) LCCN 93-723239
  • Diptych
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 88-771082
  • Dirge
    • DISTINCTIVE (English); a mournful song for burial or memorial rites or an instrumental piece expressive of similar sentiments. LCNAF n90-712561
  • Diversion
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 84-759886
  • Divertimento/Divertimenti
    • TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for divertisment, divertissement (instrumental works only). LCNAF n85-204057
  • Divertisment
    • (Russian); use divertimento (for instrumental works). Also a type of 17th- to 18th-century French musical-dramatic entertainment. When found in this context do not use divertimento.
  • Divertissement
  • Division/Divisions
    • TYPE (English); a 17th-century English technique of improvised variation over a ground, written out for didactic or performance purposes; treatment as a type is not limited to 17th-century works; see also divisions on a ground. LCNAF n 2003080154
  • Divisions on a ground
    • TYPE (English); a 17th-century English technique of improvised variation over a ground, written out for didactic or performance purposes; use this form when the composer's original title includes the phrase "on a ground"; treatment as a type is not limited to 17th-century works; see also division. LCNAF no 98001401
  • Dixit Dominus
    • DISTINCTIVE (Latin) LCNAF n81-63055
  • Dixtuor
  • Doppelquartett
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCCN 84-755180
  • Double canon/Double canons
    • TYPE (English, French); use for canon doble, canon double, canone doppio, doble canon, Doppelkanon, dvoĭnoia kanon. LCCN 2003570676
  • Double concerto
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 88-753679
  • Double fugue/Double fugues
    • TYPE (English, French); use for doble fuga, Doppelfuge, dupla fúga, dvoĭnaia fuga, fuga doble, fuga doppia' see also kettős fúga LCCN 88-751515
  • Double quartet/Double quartets
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 89-753518
  • Doumka
  • Duet/Duets
    • TYPE (English); use for dueto, Duett, duetto, duo; see also kettős. LCNAF n81-104396
  • Dueto
    • (Spanish); use duet.
  • Duett
    • (German, Hungarian); use duet.
  • Duettino/Duettinos
    • TYPE (Italian); diminutive of duetto; a short and/or concise vocal or instrumental duet; use the plural form Duettini when it appears as 1) part of a heading including another type (e.g., Soli e duettini, guitars (2) (LCNAF no98-45667)) or as 2) a distinctive title for what are actually trios. LCNAF n97-58509
  • Duetto
    • (Italian); use duet.
  • Dumka/Dumkas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a type of Ukrainian folk music whose name was adopted in Slavonic countries in the 19th century as a term for a sung lament and later as an instrumental piece; use for doumka. LCNAF n 2005017012
  • Dumky
    • (English); plural form of dumka; use dumkas.
  • Duo
    • (Italian); use duet.
  • Duo concertante
    • DISTINCTIVE for 20th-century works; TYPE for pre-20th-century works. Apply LCRI 25.28: for pre-20th-century works with titles such as duo concertant, quartetto concertant, etc, (but not titles naming a form, such as sinfonie concertante, rondeau concertante, etc.) consider the word "concertante" or its equivalent to be an adjective or epithet not part of the original title of the work and omit it from the uniform title. For treatment of duo, see duet.
E
  • Ecossaise/Ecossaises
    • TYPE (English, Hungarian); use for chotis, écossaise, escocesa, Schottische, scozzese. LCNAF n85-296650
  • Elegia
  • Élégie
  • Elegie
  • Elegy/Elegies
    • TYPE (English); for instrumental works only; see MCB v. 17, no. 8, p. 9: "for non-instrumental works, treat composer's original title as distinctive." Use for elegia, Elegie, élégie, elegiia. LCNAF n82-3090.
  • Entr'acte/Entr'actes
    • TYPE (French)LCNAF n79-88086
  • Entwurf
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Epilog
    • DISTINCTIVE (German); use for independent pieces so named. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32.
  • Epilogo
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian); use for independent pieces so named. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32.
  • Epílogo
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish); use for independent pieces so named. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32. LCNAF n 2011054975
  • Epilogue
    • DISTINCTIVE (English); use for independent epilogues. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32. LCNAF n 2004067054.
  • Épilogue
    • DISTINCTIVE (French); use for independent epilogues. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32.
  • Episode
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, German) LCCN 91-751599
  • Épisode
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Episodio
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish)
  • Epistle sonata/Epistle sonatas
    • TYPE (English); an instrumental work intended for performance probably following the Epistle of the Mass; not the same as Sonata da chiesa; use for church sonata, Kirche Sonate, sonate all'epistola.LCNAF n 2011013186
  • Epizód
    • DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian) LCCN 86-750155
  • Ėskiz
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Esquisse
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Estampie/Estampies
    • TYPE (English, French, German); instrumental dance form originating in the 13th and 14th centuries; use for estampida, estampita, istampita, istanpitta, stampita. LCNAF n 2007007297
F
  • Fancie
  • Fancy/Fancies
    • TYPE (English); use for fancie, fansye, phancy, phansie. LCCN 85-753312
  • Fandango/Fandangos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian) LCCN 86-755304; LCCN 97-708221
  • Fanfara
  • Fanfare/Fanfares
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for fanfara, fanfarra, fanfarria. LCNAF n88-646761
  • Fanfarria
  • Fansye
  • Feuilles d'album
    • DISTINCTIVE (French) LCCN 85-755495
  • Final
    • (English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use finale.
  • Finale/Finales
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian); use for final. LCNAF n200266431, n2001078559
  • Forlana
    • (German, Italian, Spanish, Russian); use forlane.
  • Forlane
    • TYPE (English, French); Italian folkdance; use for forlana, furlana.
  • Fox-trot
    • (English, French, Spanish); use foxtrot.
  • Fox-trott
  • Foxtrot/Foxtrots
    • TYPE (English); 20th-century American social dance in 4/4; use for fokstrot, fox trot, fox-trot, fox-trott, Foxtrott. LCNAF n 2004067678
  • Fuga
    • (Italian, Russian, Spanish); use fugue.
  • Fugado
  • Fugato/Fugatos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Russian); a fugue-like passage of a larger work that is not a fugue; or a fugue-like piece that in some way does not conform to the rigorous thematic and structural methodology of the fugue; use for fugado. LCCN 93-711231
  • Fuge
  • Fugetta
  • Fughetta/Fughettas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a short or light fugue; use for fugetta.
  • Fugue/Fugues
    • TYPE (English, French): use for fuga, Fuge. LCNAF n87-112259
  • Furiant/Furiants
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); an exuberant Bohemian folkdance. LCCN 94-771946
  • Furlana
G
  • Gaillarde
  • Galliard/Galliards
    • TYPE (English); use for gagliarda, gaillarde, gal'iarda, gallarda. LCNAF n89-613610allarda.
  • Galop/Galops
    • TYPE (English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Galopp. LCCN 87-754637
  • Galopp
  • Gavotte/Gavottes
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for gavot, gavota, gavotta. LCNAF n89-653244
  • Gedichte/Gedichten
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCCN 84-760332; 95-704097
  • Gesang/Gesänge
    • TYPE (German); German song or choral work; see song for treatment. use for works of this type in German and only for sets specifically titled by the composer, e.g., Becker, Gunther. [Gesang]; Beethoven, Ludwig van. [Gesänge, op. 75]; Kreutzer, Conradin. [Gesänge, men's voices, op. 24] For miscellaneous collections use "song", e.g. [Songs. Selections] LCNAF n87-803379
  • Giga
    • (Italian, Spanish); use gigue.
  • Gigue/Gigues
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for giga, jig, Jiga, jigge, zhiga. LCNAF n85-133796
  • Gimno
    • (Russian); use hymn (for vocal works).
  • Glee/Glees
    • TYPE (English); an English part-song for three or more voices; usually used as a collective uniform title.
  • Gloria
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); second item of Ordinary of Mass. LCNAF n81-46728
  • Gradual/Graduals
    • TYPE (English, German, Spanish); an item of the Proper of the Mass; usually used as a collective uniform title. LCCN 85-752240
  • Graduale
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Graduále
    • TYPE (Hungarian)
  • Graduel
    • TYPE (French)
  • Ground/Grounds
    • TYPE (English) LCCN 97-704067
  • Guajira/Guajiras
    • TYPE (Spanish); a Cuban narrative song form, usually in 6/8 alternating with 3/4; used as a type for vocal works; for other works, apply LCRI 25.27A1, footnote 10. LCNAF n2001-68424
H
  • Habanera/Habaneras
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Spanish); use for abanera, khabanera, khavanez, havanaise. LCCN 95-751750
  • Halleluia
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Halleluja
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Hallelujah
    • DISTINCTIVE LCNAF n94-65886
  • Halleluya
    • DISTINCTIVE LCCN 88-752236
  • Halleluyah
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Harmonie
  • Harmony/Harmonies
    • TYPE (English); use for works for wind instruments or a small wind band (oboes, horns, bassoons, etc.); use for harmonie, Harmonie. LCCN 94-704205
  • Himno
    • (Spanish); use hymn (for vocal works)
  • Homage
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 84-755090
  • Hommage
    • DISTINCTIVE (French) LCCN 91-758186
  • Hornpipe/Hornpipes
    • TYPE (English) LCNAF n 2006001503
  • Hudba
    • TYPE (Czech); see also music.
  • Humoresque/Humoresques
    • TYPE (English, French); use for humoresca, Humoreske, humoreszk, iumoreska, umoresca. LCNAF n82-138256
  • Hymn/Hymns
    • TYPE (English); for vocal works; usually used as a collective uniform title; use for gimno, himno, Hymne, inno. LCNAF n88-608072
  • Hymne
    • (German); use hymn (for vocal works)
I
  • Idilio
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Idillio
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Idyla
    • DISTINCTIVE (Czech) LCNAF n83-56929
  • Idyll
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, German) LCNAF n95-79255
  • Idylle
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Impromptu/Impromptus
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Spanish); use for ėksprompt, ėkspromt. LCNAF n 82106643
  • Improvviso
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCNAF n92-62414
  • In nomine/In nomines
    • TYPE (Latin) LCNAF n84-21965
  • Induló
    • TYPE (Hungarian); use march.
  • Inno
    • (Italian); use hymn (for vocal works).
  • Interludio
  • Intermède/Intermèdes
    • TYPE (French); use when this is the title of a character piece; do not apply this treatment to an independent stage work whose title begins with or includes the word intermède; intermèdes that are performed between the acts of a stage work follow rule 25.32; use for intermedio, intermedium. LCNAF n 2001064780
  • Intermezzo/Intermezzi
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for intermetstso, Zwischenakt. LCNAF n99-269788
  • Intonation/Intonations
    • TYPE (English, French, German); originally an introductory toccata-like piece for keyboard that sets the pitch for a following sacred vocal composition; may also exist independently; use for intonazione. LCNAF n 2004077814
  • Intrada/Intradas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian); use for entrada. LCNAF n00-065471
  • Introduction/Introductions
    • TYPE (English, French); usually used as the first part of a larger work, although single works with the title do exist (e.g., Telemann, Georg Philipp. [Introduction, recorders (2), continuo, C major]); use for introducción, Introduktion, introduktsiia, introduzione. LCCN 88-750963
  • Introit/Introits
    • TYPE (English, French, Latin); liturgical (see note 3); an item of the proper of the Mass; usually used as a collective uniform title; use for Introitus; LCNAF no96-53346; distinctive when an instrumental work. LCCN 84-758617
  • Introitus
    • (German, Latin); when a vocal work, use Introit.
  • Invention/Inventions
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for invención, invento, inventsiia, invenzione. LCNAF n81-134769
J
  • Jácara/Jácaras
    • TYPE (Portuguese, Spanish); a Spanish and Hispano-American dance and musical pattern used in 17th- and 18th-century stage productions, church villancicos, and instrumental variation pieces; use for xácara.
  • Jig
  • Jiga
  • Jigge
  • Jota/Jotas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a lively dance in triple time from northern Spain; use for both instrumental and vocal works; use for khota. LCNAF n 2005000976
K
  • Kadenz
    • (French); use cadenza when used as the title of an independent work.
  • Kamernaia simfoniia
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian) LCCN n 98088075
  • Kamernaia sonata
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Kammerkonzert
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCCN 85-752917
  • Kammermusik
    • (German); use chamber music.
  • Kammersinfonie
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n 92078929
  • Kammersonate
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n97-27427
  • Kammersymphonie
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n 81100999
  • Kanon
  • Kánon
    • (Hungarian); use canon.
  • Kantate
    • (German); use cantata (for conventional uniform titles only).
  • Kantilena
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Kantilene
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Kaprichch
  • Kettős
    • TYPE (Hungarian); see also duet.
  • Khota
    • (Russian); use jota.
  • Klage
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCCN 92-752592
  • Kontsertshtiuk
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Konzertstück
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCCN 90-751107
  • Krakowiak/Krakowiaks
    • TYPE (English, German, Polish); Polish folk dance characterized by syncopated rhythms in fast duple time; use for cracoviak, cracoviana, cracovienne, krakoviák, krakoviak. LCNAF n 82242544
  • Kujawiak/Kujawiaks
    • TYPE (English, Polish); Polish folk dance characterized by triple time with a displacement of the accent to the second or third beat of the bar, similar to but slower than the mazurka; use for cujawiak, kujaviak. LCNAF n2012057320
  • Kyrie
    • TYPE (Greek); liturgical (see note 3); first item of Ordinary of Mass. LCNAF n87-809336
L
  • Ladainha
    • DISTINCTIVE (Portuguese)
  • Lament
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 83-750118
  • Lamentáció
    • DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)
  • Lamentación
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Lamentation
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCNAF n81-2364
  • Lamentazione
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Lamento
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish) LCCN 86-750914
  • Larghetto/Larghettos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for largetto. LCCN n 88640435
  • Largo/Largos
    • TYPE (Italian) LCCN 86-755262
  • Lavolta
    • (English, French); use volta
  • Lección/Lecciónes
    • TYPE (Spanish)
  • Lectura/Lecturas
    • TYPE (Spanish)
  • Lecture/Lectures
    • TYPE (French)
  • Legend
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 84-743090
  • Légende
    • DISTINCTIVE (French) LCNAF n85-195151
  • Lektion/Lektionen
    • TYPE (German)
  • Lendler
  • Lento
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian); LCNAF n00-69000
  • Lesson/Lessons
    • TYPE (English) LCNAF n80-127127
  • Lesung/Lesungen
    • TYPE (German)
  • Letanía
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Lezion/Lezioni
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n87-819994
  • Litanei
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Litania
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 88-753724
  • Litanie
    • DISTINCTIVE (French) LCCN 85-751076
  • Litany
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 94-773937
  • Lullaby/Lullabies; Lullabye/Lullabyes
    • TYPE (English); use the composer's original spelling. LCNAF n84-40821
M
  • Madrigal/Madrigals
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Russian, Spanish); use for vocal works of this type; when an instrumental work is titled "Madrigal," treat this title as distinctive. Use for madrigaal, madrigale, madrygał. LCCN 87-753554
  • Maestoso
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF nr00-29108
  • Malagueña/Malagueñas
    • TYPE (Spanish); a type of instrumental piece, song, or dance in the flamenco style; use for malaguėn'ia. LCNAF n 2003083850
  • Mambo/Mambos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish) LCCN 93-719181
  • March/Marches
    • TYPE (English); use for induló, marcha, marche, marcia, mars, Marsch, marsh, marsz. LCNAF n 88655339
  • Marcha
    • (Portuguese, Spanish); use march.
  • Marche
  • Marcia
  • Marcietta/Marciettas
    • TYPE (English); diminutive form of "marcia;" use for works in the form of a march.
  • Mars
  • Marsch
  • Marsh
  • Marsz
  • Mass/Masses
    • TYPE (English); use as the first word of a distinctive title so named by the composer (e.g., Hytrek, Theopane. [Mass in honor of Saint John the Evangelist]) or as a generic title with qualifiers when needed to distinguish between a composer's masses or produce a more logical arrangement (e.g., Haydn, Joseph. [Masses, H. XXII, 9, C major], Bruckner, Anton. [Masses, E minor]); use for messa, messe, misa, missa, mise, mša, msza. LCNAF n 82145601
  • Mazurca
  • Mazurek
  • Mazurka/Mazurkas
    • TYPE (Czech, English, French, German, Hungarian, Russian); use for mazur, mazurca, mazurek. LCCN 88-753972
  • Melodia
    • (Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use melody.
  • Mélodie/Mélodies
    • TYPE (French); apply LCRI 25.29A; use for a French work for 1) solo voice and keyboard stringed instrument, in which case do not include the medium of performance in the uniform title (LCRI 25.29A), e.g., Chausson. Ernest [Mélodies, op. 2] or for 2) solo voice and accompaniment of other than a solo keyboard stringed instrument or without accompaniment, in which case indicate the medium of accompaniment or absence of accompaniment in the uniform title (25.30B10). See song for treatment. "Mélodies," in these cases, do not have the same meaning as the cognate in other languages. LCNAF n 93036347
  • Melodja
  • Melody/Melodies
    • TYPE (English); see LCRI 25.29A: considered a type distinct from the French "mélodie" (e.g., Cage, John. [Melodies, violin, keyboard instrument]). Use for melodia, melodie (use for the French "Mélodie" when medium of performance is other than specified in LCRI 25.29A), melodiia, melodja. LCNAF n 85058131
  • Menuet
  • Menuett
    • (German, Hungarian); use minuet.
  • Menuetto
  • Messa
    • (Italian); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Puccini, Giacomo. [Messa di Gloria]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Messe
    • (French, German); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Gilles, Jean. [Messe des morts]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Milonga/Milongas
    • TYPE (Spanish); a traditional song genre of Uruguay and Argentina; an Argentinian dance, forerunner of the tango; a piece of music for this dance; use for both vocal and instrumental works.
  • Miniatiura
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Miniatur
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Miniatűr/Miniatűrök
    • DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian) LCNAF n 94106913
  • Miniatura
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish) LCCN 86-750186
  • Miniatura/Miniatury
    • DISTINCTIVE (Polish) LCNAF n 85141670
  • Miniature
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, French) LCNAF n 86869720
  • Miniatuur
    • DISTINCTIVE (Dutch)
  • Minué
  • Minuet/Minuets
    • TYPE (English); use for menuet, Menuett, menuetto, minué, minuete, minuetto. LCNAF n 81022486
  • Minuete
    • (Portuguese, Spanish); use minuet.
  • Minuetto
  • Misa
    • (Spanish); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Sojo, Vicente Emilio. [Misa cromática]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Mise
    • (Hungarian); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title; use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Miserere
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3) LCNAF n 86130058
  • Missa
    • (Latin); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Frescobaldi, Girolamo. [Missa sopra l'arca della monica]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Moderato/Moderatos
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n 82224301
  • Modinha/Modinhas
    • TYPE (English, Portuguese); a song usually for solo voice and guitar popular in 19th-century Brazil and Portugal; also a Brazilian dance form derived from the vocal form. LCNAF no2008020824
  • Morceau de concert
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Motet/Motets
    • TYPE (Czech, Dutch, English, French, Polish, Russian); use for motete, motetta, Motette, motetto, motteto, mottetto. LCNAF no 97083996
  • Motete
  • Motetta
    • (Hungarian); use motet.
  • Motette
  • Motetto
  • Motteto
  • Mottetto
  • Mša
    • (Czech); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Janácek, Leos. [Mša glagolskaja]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Msza
    • (Polish); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Szczypiorski, Andrzej. [Msza za miasto Arras]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Musette/Musettes
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a dance-like piece of pastoral character whose style is suggestive of the sound of the musette or bagpipe; use for miuzet. LCNAF n00-077830
  • Music
    • TYPE (English); use for hudba, musica, música, Musik, musique, muzyka. LCNAF n85-244981.
  • Musica
  • Música
  • Musical comedy
    • For collections of a composer's musical comedies, use the preferred title Musicals.
  • Musicals
    • TYPE (English); usually used as a collective uniform title. LCNAF n83-151232
  • Musik
  • Musique
  • Muzyka
N
  • Nachspiel/Nachspiele
    • TYPE (German) LCNAF n82-243146
  • Nachtstück
    • DISTINCTIVE (German); do not translate to "nocturne" in uniform title. LCNAF n 2006056505
  • Night piece/Nightpiece
    • DISTINCTIVE (English); do not translate to "nocturne" in uniform title. LCNAF n 96082811
  • Nocturne/Nocturnes
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for nocturno, noktiurn, notturno. LCNAF n86-857989
  • Noël/Noëls
    • TYPE (French); LCNAF n82-153156
  • Nonet/Nonets
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for noneto, Nonett, nonetto. LCNAF n99-833954
  • Noneto
  • Nonett
  • Nonetto
    • (Italian, Spanish); use nonet.
  • Notturno
  • Novelette
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, French) LCCN 86-753748
  • Novellette/Novelleten
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n96-50222
O
  • Octet/Octets
    • TYPE (English); use for octeto, octuor, oktet, Oktett, ottetto. LCNAF n87-120620
  • Octeto
  • Octuor
  • Oda
    • (Polish, Spanish, Russian); use ode.
  • Óda
    • (Czech, Hungarian); use ode.
  • Ode/Odes
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian); use for oda, óda. LCCN 85-753189.
  • Offertorium
    • TYPE (English, German, Latin); chant, item of the Proper of the Mass; polyphonic settings exist from the 15th and 16th centuries; from the 17th century on, frequently performed instrumentally or vocally and not related to the prescribed liturgical term. LCCN 85-752080
  • Offertory/Offertories
    • TYPE (English); use for ofertorio, offertoire, offertorĭi, offertorio. LCNAF n92-90894
  • Oktet
  • Oktett
  • Oriental
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 77-750441
  • Orientale
    • DISTINCTIVE (French) LCCN 88-753369
  • Ostinato/Ostinatos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for compositions in which a musical pattern is repeated many times in succession while other musical elements are generally changing. LCNAF n 2004068635
  • Ottetto
  • Ouvertüre
    • (German); use overture unless part of a larger work. In that case use the composer's original spelling.
  • Ouverture
    • (French, Italian); use overture unless part of a larger work. In that case use the composer's original spelling.
  • Ouvertürensuite
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n 2009053988
  • Overtura
    • (Hungarian); use overture unless part of a larger work. In that case use the composer's original spelling.
  • Overture/Overtures
    • TYPE (English); use for independent overtures, either non-distinctively named individual overtures or for collections of a composer's overtures. Overtures that are part of a larger work follow rule 25.32. When used as a generic title, see 25.30B1: do not include medium of performance when the overture is for orchestra, as it is the implied medium; include medium of performance in all other cases; use for abertura, obertura, Ouvertüre, ouverture, overtura, sinfonia, uvertiura, uwertura. LCNAF n85-300279
P
  • Padovana
  • Paduana
  • Panasz
    • DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)
  • Part song/Part songs; Part-song/Part-songs; Partsong/Partsongs (provisional entry)
    • TYPE (English); a work in two or more voice parts without independent accompaniment; (however, some works may be accompanied). The problems with this type of composition continue to be unresolved. The first problem is the form of the name of the type. Until a definitive policy is issued, use the spelling the composer used. The second problem is medium of performance. Although "part song" is not included in the list of types of composition with implied medium of performance in 25.30B1a, the New Grove definition of the type lends credence to applying 25.30B1a. Examples in the authority file are inconsistent in stating the medium of performance. Until this problem is resolved, follow the treatment in established headings for a composer's works.
  • Partita/Partitas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for parte, Parthia, Parthie, Partia, Partie (German). Do not use for partie (French) which is synonymous with movement or part and is not a cognate of partita. LCNAF n85-235300
  • Paseo/Paseos
    • TYPE (English, Spanish); a type of ripresa or ritornello similar to the Spanish passacaglia; also used in the 17th century for keyboard variations or for compositions similar to a chaconne; use for passeo.
  • Paso/Pasos
    • TYPE (Spanish); probably comes from a Spanish dance and is most often used by 17th- and 18th-century Spanish composers of organ music. LCNAF n 2008082492
  • Paso doble
  • Pasodoble/Pasodobles
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for paso doble. no2009018016
  • Passacaglia/Passacaglias
    • TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for pasacalle, passacaille, passacalle, passakal'ia, passakaliia, passecaille. LCNAF n81-5033
  • Passamezzo/Passamezzos
    • TYPE (English); Italian dance of the 16th and early 17th centuries; cannot be distinguished from the pavan; use for pass'e mezo, pass'e mezzo, passing measures, passo e mezo, passomezo, passymeasures. LCCN 86-754078
  • Passeo
  • Passepied/Passepieds
    • TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian); use for pasp'e, paspié, passe-pied, pass-pié.
  • Pastoral/Pastorals; Pastorale/Pastorales
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); LC uses the spelling with or without the final "e" depending on which spelling the composer used; use for pastoral', pasztorál. LCNAF n81-140255
  • Pastourelle
    • DISTINCTIVE (French); use for instrumental works. LCNAF no97-72987
  • Pavan/Pavans
    • TYPE (English, German); use for padovana, paduana, pavana, pavane, pavin. LCNAF n86-856032
  • Pavana
    • (Czech, Italian, Polish, Russian, Spanish); use pavan.
  • Pavane
  • Pavin
  • Pesnia
    • (Russian); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Mussorgsky, Modest Petrovich. [Pesnia o blokhe]); use song if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Pezzo da concierto
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Phancy
  • Phansie
  • Pièce de concert
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Pieza da concerto
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Pisen/Pisne
    • TYPE (Czech); use for vocal works of this type in Czech; see song for treatment; when an instrumental work is titled "Pisen," treat this title as distinctive. Use for specific collections, e.g., Klein, Gideon. [Pisne, op. 1], Krása, Hans [Pisne, clarinet, viola, violoncello acc.] or as the first word of a composer's distinctive title, e.g., Martinů, Bohuslav [Pisne o Marii]. For miscellaneous collections use "song", e.g. [Songs. Selections] LCNAF n94-95182
  • Piva/Pive
    • TYPE (Italian); a 15th- and 16th-century Italian dance. LCNAF no2004-15246
  • Poem
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 91-752983
  • Poema
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish) LCCN 87-770352
  • Poema
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 84-755042
  • Poėma
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian) LCCN 91-105497
  • Poemat
    • DISTINCTIVE (Polish)
  • Poème
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Polacca/Polaccas
    • TYPE (Italian); an Italianate piece in the style of a polonaise. Sufficiently individualized not to be considered a strict cognate. LCCN 87-181417
  • Polca
    • (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish); use polka.
  • Polka/Polkas
    • TYPE (Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Polish); use for polca, pol'ka. LCNAF n00-114685
  • Pol'ka
  • Polonaise/Polonaises
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for Polonäse, polonesa, polonese, polonez. Do not use for Polacca. LCNAF n92-10619
  • Postlude/Postludes
    • TYPE (English, French); use for posludio, postliudiia, postludio, Postludium. LCCN 95-702752
  • Postludio
  • Postludium
  • Potpourri/Potpourris
    • TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Spanish); use for popurri, popurrí. LCNAF n94-98694
  • Pot-pourri / Pot-pourris
    • TYPE (French, Italian) LCCN 86-743125
  • Praeambulum/Praeambula
    • TYPE (Latin) LCCN 89-750965
  • Praeludium
  • Präludium
  • Prelude/Preludes
    • TYPE (English); use for Praeludium, Präludium, preliud, preliudiia, prélude, preludio, preludium, preludjum. NOTE: Liszt's tone poem entitled Les préludes is not to be considered as a type (see LCRI 25.27A1 footnote 10) LCNAF n88-621625
  • Prélude de choral
    • TYPE (French); use this form when it is the composer's original title; apply 25.30B1a: do not add a statement of medium of performance if the medium is implied by the title. Implied medium: organ; see also chorale prelude, Choralvorspiel.
  • Preludio
  • Preludium
  • Presto/Prestos
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n84-43349
  • Processional/Processionals
    • TYPE (English) LCNAF n 2006078119
  • Prolog
    • DISTINCTIVE (German, Hungarian, Russian); use for independent pieces so named. For prologues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32.
  • Prologo
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish); use for independent pieces so named. For prologues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32.
  • Prologue
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, French); use for independent prologues. For prologues that are part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32. LCNAF n89-754755
  • Psalm/Psalms
    • TYPE (English, German, Russian); for vocal works only; distinctive title for instrumental works; use in the language of the original and in the singular if a single psalm is qualified in a title by the number of the psalm. Give the numeral in the numerical system used by the composer (e.g., [Psalm 116], [Psaume XLVII], [Salmo XIX]). If a composer used the single title "psalms" (or its cognates) for several psalms without indication of psalm numbers or grouped several psalms in one publication (whether psalm numbers are indicated or not), use the English plural form and (if necessary to distinguish from other psalms), the qualifying statement that best facilitates a logical arrangement of entries (e.g., Head, Michael. [Psalms], Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix. [Psalms, op. 78], Holst, Gustav. [Psalms, mixed voices, string orchestra]). Use for psalmo, psalmus, psaume, salmo, žalm. LCNAF n82-42547; LCNAF n83-163693
  • Psalmo
  • Psalmus
  • Psaume
Q
  • Quadrille/Quadrilles
    • TYPE (English, French, German); popular 19th-century ballroom dance; use for cuadrilla, kadril', quadriglia. LCNAF no98-7167
  • Quadro
    • (English, German); when a work for four instruments or voices, use quartet.
  • Quartet/Quartets
    • TYPE (English); use for cuarteto, kvartet, quadro, Quartett, quartetto, quatuor. LCNAF n84-88603
  • Quartet movement
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN no 99026255
  • Quartettino/Quartettinos
    • TYPE (Italian); because titles like Terzettino, Quartettino, Quintettino, etc. do not include the words trio, quartet, quintet, etc., rule 25.30B3 cannot be applied; LCCN 85-751084
  • Quartetto
  • Quartettsatz
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCCN n 2004070757
  • Quintet/Quintets
    • TYPE (English); use for kvintet, quinteto, Quintett, quintette, quintetto. LCNAF n83-176166
  • Quintettino/Quintettinos
    • TYPE (Italian); because titles like Terzettino, Quartettino, Quintettino, etc. do not include the words trio, quartet, quintet, etc., rule 25.30B3 cannot be applied; LCCN 95-754183
  • Quintetto
  • Quodlibet/Quodlibets
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for kvodlibet. LCCN 85-754103
R
  • Rag/Rags
    • TYPE (English)
  • Rapsodia
  • Recessional/Recessionals
    • TYPE (English) LCCN 94703730
  • Récit/Récits
    • TYPE (French); a generic term used in France during the 17th and 18th centuries for fragments or entire compositions for solo voice and, by extension, for solo instrument; also used as a title for an organ piece with a distinct melodic part, as opposed to earlier, contrapuntal organ music; use for works for solo instrument with or without acc.; distinctive when the title means "story" or "narrative." LCNAF n 89629002
  • Recitative/Recitatives
    • TYPE (English, French); use for both instrumental and vocal works; use for rechitativ, récitatif, recitativo, Rezitativ. LCCN 87-770023
  • Retornelo
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish); used as an introduction or interlude to a Baroque aria or concerto. Do not treat as a type of composition.
  • Rhapsodie
  • Rhumba
  • Ricercare/Ricercars/Ricercari
    • TYPE (English, Italian); generally, a type of instrumental piece common during the 16th and 17th centuries; because there is no single accepted English form of name for either the singular or plural of this type, use the form used by the composer and maintain that form throughout for that composer; if the composer used no plural form, use Ricercars; use for recercada, Ricercar, richerkar. LCCN 84-757355
  • Rigaudon/Rigaudons
    • TYPE (French, German, Hungarian); use for rigadoon, rigodon, rigodón. LCCN 85-752971
  • Rigodon
  • Ritornello/Ritornelli
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n00-67406
  • Ritournelle/Ritournelles
    • TYPE (French) LCNAF n2004-75913
  • Romance/Romances
    • TYPE (English, French, Spanish); a 16th- to 17th-century Spanish ballade (also Romanza), an 18th-century French song, and a 19th-century instrumental work. If an instrumental work, use the English form. Use for instrumental works titled romans, Romanza, romanze. LCNAF n87-121520. If a vocal work, use the form of the language of the text; see also romans, romanza (Italian), romanza (Spanish), Romanze; when in English, apply 25.30B8 and name the type of solo voice. LCNAF no00-60406
  • Romans/Romansy
    • TYPE (Russian); solo vocal form. See "song" for treatment; LCNAF n94-102950. When an instrumental work, use romance.
  • Romanza/Romanze
    • TYPE (Italian); solo vocal form. See "song" for treatment; LCNAF n2003-84617. When an instrumental work, use romance.
  • Rondeau/Rondeaux
    • TYPE (French); use as a type only for the "form fixe" vocal work of the 13th to 15th centuries, and as the refrain form used in the suites of the Baroque era. If encountered as the French variant of the repeat form of the late 18th and 19th centuries, use rondo.
  • Rondel
    • DISTINCTIVE (French) LCNAF n94-26598
  • Rondino/Rondinos
    • TYPE (English) LCNAF n78-61506
  • Rondo/Rondos
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for rondó, rondò, Rundgesang. LCNAF n82-140142
  • Rondó
  • Rondò
  • Rondoletto/Rondolettos
    • TYPE (Italian) LCCN 99-385075
  • Round/Rounds
    • TYPE (English); a short perpetual canon in which all the parts sound at the same pitch or at an octave to it. LCNAF n 2003085548
  • Rumba/Rumbas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a popular recreational dance of Afro-Cuban origin, in syncopated duple metre with a repetitive melody and an ostinato one-bar rhythmic pattern played in the accompaniment; use for rhumba. LCNAF n 2001063996
  • Rundgesang
    • TYPE (German); use rondo.
S
  • Salmo
  • Saltarello/Saltarellos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for saltarelle, sal'tarello, saltarelo. LCCN 2001-542442
  • Salve Regina
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3) LCNAF n83-163506
  • Samba/Sambas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish) LCCN 86-752077
  • Sanctus
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3)
  • Saraband/Sarabands
    • TYPE (English); use for sarabanda, Sarabande, zarabanda. LCNAF n87-103646
  • Sarabanda
  • Sarabande
  • Sardana/Sardanas
    • TYPE (Spanish) LCNAF n83-67011
  • Scherzando/Scherzandos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish) LCNAF n 2004144266
  • Scherzettino/Scherzettinos
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF no2011038325
  • Scherzetto/Scherzetti
    • TYPE (English) LCNAF n83-121492
  • Scherzino/Scherzinos
    • TYPE English, Italian) LCNAF n00-67394.
  • Scherzo/Scherzos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for skertso, squerzo.
  • Seguidilla/Seguidillas
    • TYPE (Spanish); use "Seguidilla/Seguidillas" and medium statement for vocal works. For an instrumental work, consider it a dance and use the plural form of the term, "Seguidillas," for both singular and plural forms, with medium statement.
  • Sekstet
  • Septet/Septets
    • TYPE (English, Russian); use for septeto, Septett, septimino, septuor, settimino. LCNAF n82-130965
  • Septeto
  • Septett
  • Septimino
  • Septuor
  • Serenade / Serenades
    • TYPE (English, French); instrumental composition of the 18th and 19th centuries; use for serenada, serenata; for vocal works titled serenata, see serenata; see also seresta, Ständchen. LCNAF n 81112131
  • Serenata / Serenatas
    • TYPE (Italian); a 17th- and 18th-century dramatic cantata-like vocal work for two or more singers and orchestra, performed at court or at the home of an aristocratic family. LCNAF no2007039286; for instrumental works titled serenata, see serenade.
  • Seresta / Serestas
    • TYPE (Portuguese); the title means "serenade"; use this form for both instrumental and vocal works when it is the composer's original title; see also serenade. LCNAF no2004120758
  • Service / Services
    • TYPE (English); a term used in the Anglican liturgy to refer to musical settings of the canticles for Matins (Morning prayer) and Evensong, and of certain parts of the Communion service; apply 25.30B1 and do not normally include a statement of medium of performance; regard any title in which "service" is modified by something other than medium or key as distinctive.
  • Sestetto
  • Set/Sets
    • TYPE (English) LCNAF n98-64541
  • Setting
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 88-754240
  • Settimino
  • Sevillana/Sevillanas
    • TYPE (Spanish) LCNAF n2002-69321
  • Sextet/Sextets
    • TYPE (English); use for sekstet, sestetto, sexteto, Sextett, sextuor. LCNAF n85-204021
  • Sexteto
  • Sextett
  • Sextuor
  • Siciliana/Sicilianas
    • TYPE (English); use for ciciliano, sicilien, siciliene, sicilienne, siciliano, sitsiliana, siziliano. LCNAF n92-26301
  • Simphony
    • Variant spelling of symphony; use symphony.
  • Sinfonia/Sinfonie
    • TYPE (Italian); cognate for symphony. When the term represents the multi-movement work of the 18th to 20th centuries, use symphony. NOTE: the term also represents several separate types of Italian Baroque compositions, one of which (the tri-partite opera overture) was one of the precursors of the modern symphony. When used to represent any of these Baroque compositions, the term should not be normalized to symphony; use sinfonia/sinfonie. However, the German "Sinfonie" (plural is Sinfonien) (a cognate of symphony) should be normalized to symphony. LCNAF n88-609341
  • Sinfonia da camera
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, Italian) LCNAF n 2006074405
  • Sinfonie
    • The German cognate for symphony and the Italian plural of sinfonia. When it represents the 18th- to 20th-century multi-movement work use symphony. When it represents the plural of the Italian Baroque sinfonia, use "Sinfonie."
  • Sinfonie da camera
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCNAF n 85105937
  • Sinfonietta/Sinfoniettas
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian); apply 25.30B1a; use for simfonietta, simphonietta, symfoniieta, symphonietta, symphoniette. LCNAF n96-37352
  • Sketch
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCCN 84-759279
  • Skizze
    • DISTINCTIVE (German); for "sketch." LCCN 86-754441
  • Solo/Solos
    • TYPE (English); probably not used in other languages as a type of composition. "In 18th-century English terminology, 'solo' as the designation for a piece of music for a melody instrument with continuo accompaniment was virtually equivalent to 'sonata' and was often so used in titles"--New Grove. LCNAF n88-676840
  • Solo de concours
    • DISTINCTIVE (French) LCNAF n 97095250
  • Solo piece
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCNAF no 99035859
  • Solostück
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n 00073633
  • Solostykke
    • DISTINCTIVE (Danish, Norwegian)
  • Son/Sones
    • TYPE (Spanish); a generic term for Latin American rural or peasant music, both vocal and instrumental, in various forms; an unequal triple rhythm (sesquialtera) is a common feature.
  • Sonata/Sonatas
    • TYPE (English, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for sonate. LCNAF n89-605155
  • Sonata da camera
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, French, Italian, Spanish) LCNAF no98-60604
  • Sonata da chiesa
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian); a Baroque instrumental work, often in 4 movements that replaced the organ solos that had regularly been substituted for elements of the Proper at Mass and Vespers. LCNAF no2002029071.
  • Sonata de cámara
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Sonata movement/Sonata movements
    • TYPE (English) LCNAF n2005-10688
  • Sonate
    • (French, German); use sonata.
  • Sonate da camera
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 97-708718
  • Sonate de chambre
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Sonatensatz/Sonatensätze
    • TYPE (German) LCNAF n2004-79718
  • Sonatille/Sonatilles
    • TYPE (English, French); a type of "mini sonata." LCNAF no2008137287
  • Sonatina/Sonatinas
    • TYPE (English, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Sonatine. LCNAF n82-116353
  • Sonatina da camera
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian) LCCN 2008365343
  • Sonatine
  • Song/Songs
    • TYPE (English); use for vocal works of this type in English; when an instrumental work is titled "Song," treat this title as distinctive. For vocal works, apply 25.30B1 a): do not add a medium of performance for works with the initial title element Songs, Lieder, etc. unless it differs from the implied medium of solo voice(s) with acc. for keyboard instrument (this does not apply to songs in a popular medium). Apply 25.30B10: accompaniment for works with the initial title element Songs, Lieder, etc.: when the work is accompanied by any medium other than a keyboard instrument, add the name(s) of the instrument(s) followed by "acc." If the work is unaccompanied, add "unacc." as the medium of performance. Use only for miscellaneous sets, e.g., [Songs], [Songs. Selections] and specific collections, e.g., [Songs, op. 14], [Songs. op. 56. Maid sings light]. For other languages see canción, canzone, chanson, dal, Gesang, laulu, Lied, melodie, pisen, romance. LCNAF n85-139914
  • Sortie
    • DISTINCTIVE (French) LCCN 90-751474
  • Sousedská/Sousedsky
    • TYPE (Czech) LCCN 96-752783
  • Spielmusik
    • DISTINCTIVE (German) LCNAF n92-55877
  • Spiritual/Spirituals
    • TYPE (English); a type of folksong that originated in American revivalist activity between 1740 and the close of the 19th century; treat as a type for vocal works; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; use for spirichuėl. LCNAF no2008185915
  • Squerzo
  • Stabat Mater
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3) LCCN 89755320
  • Ständchen
    • TYPE (German); the title meaning "serenade" often given to multi-movement instrumental compositions; use this form when it is the composer's original title; possibly distinctive when a vocal work; see also serenade. LCNAF n 95027103
  • Suite/Suites
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for siuita. LCNAF n 89637546
  • Symphonette/Symphonettes
    • TYPE (English); apply 25.30B1a: add a statement of medium of performance only when not for the implied medium of orchestra.
  • Symphonie
  • Symphonie de chambre
    • DISTINCTIVE (French) LCNAF n 2007026995
  • Symphony/Symphonies
    • TYPE (English); form of the multi-movement work of the 18th to 20th centuries; use for simfoniia, Simphonie, Simphony, Symphonie, and (when this type of composition) for the Italian "sinfonia" and the German "Sinfonie." However, the Italian Baroque "sinfonia" (plural, Sinfonie) is a different type of composition and should not be normalized to symphony. LCNAF n 81018172
T
  • Tambourin/Tambourins
    • TYPE (English, French); an 18th-century French dance with a lively melody and regular, static bass simulating a drum, usually in duple meter; found in the theatrical works of Rameau and others and as purely instrumental works.
  • Tánc
  • Tango/Tangos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish) LCCN 89-751700
  • Tanz
  • Tarantella/Tarantellas
    • TYPE (German, Italian, English, Russian); use for tarantela, tarentelle, terentelle. LCNAF n 91079971
  • Te Deum
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3) LCNAF n 90600393
  • Tema
    • (Italian, Spanish, Russian); use only as the first word of a combination title (e.g., [Tema con variazioni ...]). When it occurs alone, use theme.
  • Tentet
  • Terentelle
    • Variant spelling of tarantella/tarentelle; use tarantella.
  • Terzett
    • (German); use trio.
  • Terzettino/Terzettinos
    • TYPE (Italian); because titles like Terzettino, Quartettino, Quintettino, etc. do not include the words trio, quartet, quintet, etc., rule 25.30B3 cannot be applied; for terzetto use trio; LCNAF no 97081834
  • Terzetto
    • (Italian); use trio.
  • Thema
    • (German); use only as the first word of a combination title (e.g., [Thema und Variationen ...]). When it occurs alone, use theme.
  • Theme/Themes
    • TYPE (English); generally use in combination with the term "variations"; in such a case use the language of the original title and treat the resulting phrase as a type of composition (e.g., [Theme and variations, piano], [Thème et variations, orchestra], [Thema und Variationen, guitar], [Tema con variazioni, violin, piano]). It should also be considered as a type of composition on the rare occasion when it occurs alone. In this case use the English form; use for tema, Thema, thème. LCCN 98-6647; 83-73208
  • Thème
    • (French); use only as the first word of a combination title (e.g., [Thème et variations, orchestra]). When it occurs alone, use theme.
  • Tiento/Tientos
    • TYPE (Spanish)
  • Toccata/Toccatas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for tocata, tokkata. LCNAF n 80151141
  • Toccatina/Toccatinas
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n 99834029
  • Tonadilla/Tonadillas
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish) LCCN 95-703482
  • Tone poem
    • For collections of a composer's works in this genre, use symphonic poems.
  • Toy/Toys
    • TYPE (English); a short, light piece for lute or virginal, simple in form and light in texture; use for 16th- and 17th-century works; for post-17th-century works, treat the term as distinctive.
  • Toye
    • (English); use toy.
  • Trio/Trios
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Terzett, terzetto. LCNAF n 87151624
  • Trio sonata/Trio sonatas
    • TYPE (English); use for sonata en trio, sonate en trio, trio-sonata, Triosonate. LCNAF n 87802965
  • Triple concerto
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCNAF n 91008791
  • Triptych
    • DISTINCTIVE (English) LCNAF n 90625713
  • Trumpet tune/Trumpet tunes
    • TYPE (English) LCNAF n 2005004323
  • Tune/Tunes
    • TYPE (English) LCNAF n 78067341
U
V
  • Val's
  • Vals
  • Valzer
  • Variant
    • DISTINCTIVE (English); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; LCCN 97-700369; for works in the form of variations, use variation.
  • Variante
    • DISTINCTIVE (French); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; LCCN 87-754231; for works in the form of variations, use variation.
  • Varianten
    • DISTINCTIVE (German); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; LCNAF n99-1755; for works in the form of variations, use variation.
  • Varianti
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; LCNAF no97-4585; for works in the form of variations, use variation. LCCN 2002-537041
  • Variation/Variations
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for variación, variant, variante, Varianten, varianti, variatsiia, variazione, except when the first word of a distinctive title, when used in a combination title (e.g., [Tema e variazione]), or for works not in the form of variations. LCNAF n 81100998
  • Vázlatok
    • DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian) LCNAF n 81018971
  • Veränderung/Veränderungen
    • TYPE (German); treat as a type of composition when the term is used to mean "variations." LCNAF n 94031866
  • Vers
  • Verset/Versets
    • TYPE (English, French); considered to be a type when written for organ; when written for any other medium, apply 25.27A1 footnote 10; use for vers, Versett, versetto, versettus, versiculo, verso. LCCN 88-752736
  • Versett
  • Versetto
  • Versettus
  • Versiculo
  • Verso
  • Vesper/Vespers
    • TYPE (English, German); liturgical (see note 3); use for vechernia, vesperae, vêpres, vespro, vísperas. LCNAF n 2010031927
  • Villancico/Villancicos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a Spanish vocal work for one or more voices with refrain. Use without specification of medium except in case of conflicts; use for vil'iansiko. LCNAF n 81116150
  • Villanella/Villanelle
    • TYPE (English, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a form of "light vocal music popular in Italy and elsewhere from the 1530s to the early 17th century"--New Grove. Use "villanella" for the singular and "villanelle" for the plural. Do not confuse the plural with the French "villanelle." LCNAF no2008153937
  • Villanelle/Villanelles
    • TYPE (French); a 16th- to 17th-century French country dance or song, and an 18th- to 20th-century instrumental piece. Do not confuse with the Italian "villanella" (plural "villanelle"). NOTE: Also the German form of "villanella." When found in this context, use the Italian singular and plural forms. LCNAF n 82020271
  • Vivace/Vivaces
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian) LCCN 84758900
  • Vivo/Vivos
    • TYPE (Italian) LCNAF n 2005024423
  • Vocalise/Vocalises
    • TYPE (English, French); use for vocal works of this type; distinctive title for instrumental works. For vocal works, see song for treatment. Use for vocalización, vocalizzo, Vokalise, vokaliz. LCNAF n 82217213
  • Vocalización
  • Volta/Volte
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian, Spanish); an early 17th-century dance; use for lavolta, volte (the French singular form of the term)
  • Volte
    • (French); use volta for the singular form of this term
  • Vorspiel/Vorspiele
    • TYPE (German); use for independent works titled as such; when part of a larger work, follow rule 25.32. LCNAF n 82143656
W
  • Walzer
  • Wiegenlied
    • DISTINCTIVE (German); LCNAF n 80097108
X
Z
  • Žalm
  • Zapateado/Zapateados
    • TYPE (Spanish); a solo dance in triple time in which rhythm is marked by stamping of the heels; use for tsapateado, zapateao.
  • Zhiga
  • Zortzico/Zortzicos
    • TYPE (Spanish); Basque folk song or dance in 5/4 time with dotted rhythms; use for sortsiko, zorcico, zortciko, Zortziko. LCNAF no2011059296
  • Zwiefacher/Zwiefache
    • TYPE (German); a German folk dance with regular alternation between duple and triple meter. LCNAF nr2006005717