Notes Style Sheet


  • For quotations in the main body of the text, follow CMS16, 13.66.

    Example: According to Hunter, "Handel is much better than Bach" (p. 23).

    Also: How could Hunter possibly claim that "Handel is much better than Bach" (p. 23)?

  • For block quotations, follow CMS16, 13.68. Note that page reference follows the final punctuation of the quotation:

    Despite the writings of other scholars, Hunter stands firm:

    Handel is much better than Bach. His vocal writing shows a masterful knowledge of the voice and its capabilities. The instrumental character of Bach's vocal parts makes them difficult for all but the most talented singers to perform. (p. 123)
  • Use p. 22ff. (not "pp. 22ff.")"Only when referring to a section for which no final number can usefully be given should ff. . . . be resorted to. Instead of f., the subsequent number should be used (e.g., "140-41" not "140f."(CMS16, 14.156)

  • Complete bibliographical citations appear in parentheses and brackets within the text:

    • (Richard L. Crocker, "Matins Antiphons at St. Denis," Journal of the American Musicological Society 39, no. 3 [Autumn 1986]: 441–90)

    • . . . from the Library of Congress's Subject Cataloging Manual: Subject Headings (5th ed. [Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Cataloging Distribution Service, 1996])

    • (Nan Cooke Carpenter, Music in the Medieval and Renaissance Universities, Da Capo Press Music Reprint Series [Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958; reprint, New York: Da Capo, 1972], 98)

    • (Paris: Cognard, 1732; reprint, Geneva: Slatkine, 1971)

  • For a subsequent reference to a source already cited, use author's last name and page number; in cases of ambiguity (e.g., two or more works by the same author are cited), include also a short title.

  • Example: (Crocker, 442); or (Crocker, "Matins Antiphons," 442).

  • For citations in running text with both a volume and a page number, use the format 1:314not vol. 1, p. 314, or vol. 1:314.

  • For Grove Music Online in running texts, see subsection on running texts under Grove in the Citation Style section.

  • Sound recordings:

    • Full citation: (Richard Strauss, Don Juan, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, cond. Georg Solti, London 35982 [1982], CD).

    • But usually the citation can be shortened because some of the descriptive material is in the prose; or the composer or performer is reflected in the title or unnecessary for the citation:

      • The commercial recording of the first five pieces (Mauricio Kagel 5, Audivis Montaigne MO 782017 [1994], CD) presents a bewildering array of ideas.

      • The earliest of these works is Opus 1991: Konzertstück für Orchester, which Kagel calls his first piece of "absolute" or "autonomous" music in the notes to the commercial recording (Col Legno AU 31826 [1991], CD).