Notes Style Sheet

NAMES OF PEOPLE AND PLACES

  • Notes generally uses name forms of musicians (and nonmusicians) as given in Library of Congress Authorities (http://authorities.loc.gov). N.B.: this differs from previous Notes practice (before 2014) of depending primarily upon musican names as found in NGD2. Note, however, that if LC uses only initials for given names (as is common in Soviet-era publications, for example), full names may be spelled out for clarity. Some exceptions are noted in the Words, Names, and Phrases section.
  • As a general practice, Notes drops patronymics from Russian names: Aleksandr Borodin, not Aleksandr Porfir'evich Borodin (as in LC Authorities). One common exception, however, is Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky (use full name as in LC Authorities).
  • Any exceptions to the above are listed under Words, Names, and Phrases.
  • Do not use "he or she," "s/he," or similar constructions for gender neutrality (CMS17, 5.250). Likewise, though "Many people substitute the plural they and their for the singular he or she . . . neither is considered fully acceptable in formal writing" (CMS17, 5.256). Rephrase the sentence to avoid these traps. CMS17, 5.255, describes nine techniques for achieving gender neutrality.
  • Full names of composers, musicologists, editors, and all other personages should appear at the first occurrence of the name in a text. Note, however, that first names may be dropped when preferable for stylistic reasons.
    • Example: Many performers now reject editions of Bach cantatas with editorially imposed dynamics.
  • In English, organizational, academic, civil, religious, and noble titles are capitalized if used immediately before a name, in which case they become part of the name. BUT, a generic term or title used alone in place of the name is normally NOT capitalized (CMS17, 8.19–33).
    • Examples: President George Washington; but "George Washington was the first president of the United States" — Queen Elizabeth II; but The queen — "The Marquess of Queensbury left his calling card"; but "The marquess left his calling card"; — Sally Smith is dean of the College of Arts & Sciences.
  • Conversely: "In references to works of drama or fiction, epithets or generic titles used in place of names are normally capitalized" (CMS17, 8.35).
    • "Baritone Stefano Mandini, the first Count Almaviva in Mozart's Le nozze di Figaro. . . ."; & "When he first sang the Count in Figaro. . . ."
  • For capitalization (or noncapitalization) of such titles in other languages, see the section on Capitalization.
  • Russian publications often use only initials for authors’ and composers’ given names, and they often are authorized this way in Library of Congress Authorities. Given names may be spelled out in running text (they usually are found in parentheses in the authority file), but use only the initials if quoting a bibliographic citation.
  • For names ending in s, x, or z, form the possessive by adding apostrophe + s ('s) (CMS17, 7.18):
    • Saint-Saëns's Organ Symphony (not Saint-Saëns')
    • Berlioz's Nuits d'été (not Berlioz')
  • Notes regards the name of a chamber music performance organization as a personal noun, and the name of a large ensemble as an impersonal noun.
    • Emerson Quartet, for whom the work was written; 
    • Chicago Symphony Orchestra, for which the work was written
  • Use RISM Sigla volume or institutional Web site as the authority for the correct names (including upper/lower case) of libraries and other institutions. Note that names of foreign organizations are not italicized: Schwerin, Mecklenburgisches Landeshauptarchivnot Mecklenburgisches Landeshauptarchiv.
  • For geographical names, use MW11, but use English form when it differs from that cited in MW11 (e.g., Cracownot Kraków; Viennanot Wien; Praguenot Praha).