Notes Style Sheet


NOTE: see also References in Running Texts

Notes uses the footnote system of documentation that is commonly used in arts and humanities publications (described in detail in CMS16, chapter 14), NOT the parenthetical author-date system that is commonly used in science and social-sciences publications. In the published article, footnotes will appear at the bottom of the printed page on which they are referenced, but should be submitted to the journal editor as endnotes (i.e., all notes in numerical order at the end of the article).

Notes articles do not normally include bibliographies (unless the article IS a bibliography, as in a bibliographic essay). Full documentation for each work cited should be given in its first appearance in a footnote; subsequent citations should be abbreviated, as described in CMS16, chapter 14.

Topics in This Section

Complete Works


  • When citing dissertations, put titles in quotes, not italics. Use the format: 
    Adelyn Peck Leverett, "A Paleographical and Repertorial Study of the Manuscript Trento, Castello del Buonconsiglio, 91 (1378)" (Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1990), 32–37.

    Cited in running text: (Adelyn Peck Leverett, "A Paleographical and Repertorial Study of the Manuscript Trento, Castello del Buonconsiglio, 91 (1378)" [Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1990], 32–37).

Edition Statements

  • For the edition statement, use only the edition number. Do not include descriptive adjectives related to the edition, such as "rev. ed." unless they are necessary to distinguish differences between the same numbered edition:
  • Aaron I. Cohen, Women in Music: An Encyclopedic Biobibliography, 2d ed. (New York: Books & Music, 1987).

E-Mail Correspondence

  • Use this format (based on CMS15, 17.208)
    "...whether fiction or faction, poetry or prose, journalism or criticism" (Simon Warner, e-mail message to Tracey Rudnick, 29 March 2004).
    (Paul L. Ranzini [managing editor, Recent Researches in American Music, A-R Editions, Inc.], e-mail message to Bob Gilmore, 15 January 2002).

Footnote (or Endnote) Citations

  • For footnote (or endnote) citations, use: p. vii n.1 (no comma).

Future Publications

  • When a projected date of completion is known, use "forthcoming."

  • When a projected date of completion is unknown, use "in preparation."

Grove Music Online / The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians / Other Grove Dictionaries

  • Printed 2d ed. (The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed.): 
    • Imogen Fellinger, "Periodicals," in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed. (London: Macmillan, 2001), 19:436.
    • Note: Do not include the total no. of vols. (i.e., 29 vols.) in citing this resource, and omit "New York: Grove" from the publisher information.
  • Electronic version (Grove Music Online):
  • Note: Grove Music Online comprises the combined full text of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed., edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell (2001), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, edited by Stanley Sadie (1992), and The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 2d ed., edited by Barry Kernfeld (2002). Articles updated since their appearance in print are date-stamped in the upper right corner of the screen; include this revision date in the citation and omit the original publication year. If the article from The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians is unrevised, use the date (2001) after the title Grove Music Online. To distinguish the electronic forms of articles in the opera and jazz dicitionaries from parallel articles in the larger dictionary, use the qualifiers [Opera, 1992] or [Jazz, 2002] and omit the 2001 date as noted below.
    •  In footnotes:
    • One author for the entire article: Imogen Fellinger, "Periodicals" (rev. 29 July 2003), Grove Music Online, (accessed 30 May 2013), at II/2/ii: "United States of America." (Note: this is a revised article.)
    • Author has written only a portion of the article: David Hiley, "Organum and Discant," sec. IV of "Sources, MS," Grove Music Online (2001), (accessed 30 May 2013), at 2: "Winchester Troper." (Note: this article is unrevised.)


    • Parallel article in the opera or jazz dictionaries: Imogen Fellinger, "Periodicals," Grove Music Online [Opera, 1992], (accessed 30 May 2013), at I/3: "The 19th Century."
    • Example of a different article on the same person in all three component dictionaries:
      Richard Dyer and Norbert Carnovale, "Schuller, Gunther (Alexander)" (rev. 26 November 2003), Grove Music Online, (accessed 25 May 2004). (Note: 2001 date, i.e. Grove Music Online (2001), is dropped because article is revised.)
      Mark Tucker and Barry Kernfeld, "Gunther (Alexander) Schuller," Grove Music Online [Jazz, 2002], (accessed 30 May 2013).
      Austin Clarkson, "Schuller, Gunther (Alexander)," Grove Music Online [Opera, 1992], (accessed 30 May 2013).
    • In running text:
      (Imogen Fellinger, "Periodicals" [rev. 29 July 2003], Grove Music Online, [accessed 30 May 2013], at II/2/ii: "United States of America").
      (Imogen Fellinger, "Periodicals," Grove Music Online [Opera, 1992], [accessed 30 May 2013], at I/3: "The 19th Century").
      There may be some flexibility in form depending upon the context of the citation.
  • Other Grove Printed Dictionaries:
    Follow the basic format used for the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed.:
    Fred Steiner and Martin Marks, "Film Music," in The New Grove Dictionary of American Music (London: Macmillan, 1986), 2:118-25.
    Richard Crawford, "Porgy and Bess," in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera (London: Macmillan, 1992), 3:1061–63.
    James Lincoln Collier, "Dixieland," in The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 2d ed. (London: Macmillan, 2002), 1:620–23.


  • Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1949-86); or  Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 2d ed. (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1994–2008), Sachteil, s.v. "xxxxxx," by [author name]. Omit the total number of volumes.

  • For citations to a specific column of a lengthy article, use the form: Hartmut Krones, "Musik und Rhetorik," in Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 2d ed. (Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1994–2008), Sachteil, 6:830.

  • Note: replace "Sachteil" with "Personenteil" as required.

Places of Publication

  • In citations, Cambridge (used alone) refers to Cambridge, England. For Cambridges in the U.S., specify the state: Cambridge, MA; Cambridge, MD; etc.
  • Similarly, Oxford (used alone) in citations refers to Oxford, England. For Oxfords in the U.S., specify the state: Oxford, MS; Oxford, NC; etc.
  • For small English cities, include the county (or shire), abbreviated or spelled out, if cited in the publication:
  • Farnborough, Hants, Eng.: Gregg International Publishers, 1972 (for Farnborough, Hampshire, England). Note that English county abbreviations may diverge somewhat from the full name, and do not end with a period. For a list of U.K. counties and their abbreviations, see "Postal Counties of the United Kingdom,"

    Publishers in the U.K. are inconsistent in naming their country of publication (Great Britain: England, Scotland, Wales; Northern Ireland). Use whatever form of country name (if any) is used in the item itself, or in the best available OCLC WorldCat record for it.


NOTE: see also Publishing Houses and Presses in the Style Quirks section.
  • Use the full form of a publisher's name, but omit Co., Inc., and Ltd.:

  • W. W. Norton,notNorton G. Henle,notHenle
    Alfred A. Knopf,notKnopf Carl Fischer,notFischer
    Clarendon Press,notClarendon


  • Citing foreign-language quotations with translations by the author:
    • Within the text (not blocked, punctuation at end of sentence): "and so be it" (my trans.; original in Libro español, ed. Buzzy Banderas [Madrid: Editorial falso, 2010], 25).
    • Block quotation (no quote marks around, and the punctuation goes at the end of the quotation, not of the block):
      These pieces would take fright at brilliantly lit salons where gather people who do not like music. They are rather "Conversations"  between the Piano and Oneself, in which it is not forbidden to use one's sensitivity from rainy days! (my trans.)


  • The first occurrence of RISM in an article or other non-citation usage should include the full name as well as the acronym, either RISM (Répertoire international des sources musicales) or Répertoire international des sources musicales (RISM). Note: RISM is a series and is therefore in roman (CMS16, 8.2, 8.174, 14.128).

  • If using RISM library sigla (after citing the full name of the library), use the following format: US-Wc (with hyphen separating country abbreviation and library abbreviation), for Washington, D.C., Library of Congress. A directory of RISM library sigla is RISM Sigla.


  • Use "RISM" without full title in notes and for citing RISM numbers. Note the following formats for citing RISM volumes and numbers:


    RISM section, volume, and part nos.: RISM A/I/5, RISM B/IV/5 (use slashes not spaces between the section, volume [roman], and part [arabic] nos.)
    RISM no. from Einzeldrucke vor 1800: RISM A/I: H 4005 (Note: Do not use the form RISM H4005 or RISM H-4005). Beware that a few composers, such as Orlando di Lasso, have a specialized numbering system in RISM.

    RISM no. from Recueils imprimés xvie–xviie siècles: RISM B/I: 156417 (Note: Do not use the form RISM 1564/17).

    RISM no. from Recueils imprimés xviiie siècle: RISM B/II, p. 123

Serial Publications (journals, periodicals, newspapers, etc.)

  • For journal citations, use the following basic format: 

    • Richard L. Crocker, "Matins Antiphons at St. Denis," Journal of the American Musicological Society 39, no. 3 (Autumn 1986): 441–90. Note: seasons are capitalized in source citations (CMS16, 14.80).
    • [Notes uses issue no. and identifying month (spelled in full) or season, as appropriate, in all citations to facilitate location in online indexes and full-text databases.]

  • Stephen Rose, "Music Printing in Leipzig during the Thirty Years' War,"  Notes 61, no. 2 (December 2004): 323–49.
  • For the first series of Notes, use the form: Notes [ser. 1] 8 (August 1940): 64–65.


  • For serials with only a date for identification (no volume or issue nos.), use the form: Saturday Review, 13 March 1954, 36. Journal and newspaper names do not begin with "The" (capitalized and italic) in citations or in running text; use lower case and roman. But the initial article is retained in citations of foreign-language equivalents. (see Titles).


  • the Boston Globe — BUT — El país (Spain)
  • Do not use a comma after article titles ending with a question mark or exclamation point (per CMS14, 15.221):
    Richard Griscom, "How Are You Today?" Notes 53, no. 1 (September 1995): 22–23.
    Note: CMS16, 14.178, departs from its former usage, and now adds a comma between the concluding punctuation mark and the concluding quote mark. Notes continues with the older practice (no added comma).
  • For titles in English plus another language, cite initially both titles, separated by "[space]=[space]":
    Mario Milanca Guzman, "Dislates en la obra Teresa Carreno, de Marta Milinowski," Revista de musica latinoamericana = Latin American Music Review 8, no. 2 (1987): 185–215.
    In secondary references and in running text, the English title alone may be used.

  • Soviet journals typically do not contain volume numbers, but merely the year of the volume plus an issue number. The following format is a practical solution:
    E. Dobrynina, "'Konek-gorbunok' Rodiona Shchedrina," Sovetskaia muzyka (1960, no. 6): 111–14.
    When transcribing names and titles from Cyrillic to roman alphabet, use ALA-LC Romanization Tables, If an editiion has dual titles (one in Cyrillic and one in English), use whatever English romanization is used in the edition.

Sound & Video Recordings

Sound Recordings

  • The basic format is: Composer, Title, Ensemble, Conductor, Label name and label no. (date of issue, not of performance), recording medium: Richard Strauss, Don Juan, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, cond. Georg Solti, London 35982 (1982), CD. Or within text: (Richard Strauss, Don Juan, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, cond. Georg Solti, London 35982 [1982], CD).

    If a historic recording, include also the date of the original performance/recording: Jussi Bjoerling at Carnegie Hall, Jussi Bjoerling (tenor), Frederick Schauwecker (piano), recorded live on 2 March 1958, RCA Victor Gold Seal 60520-2-RG (1991), CD.

  • Some citations require modification, however, particularly for citing the performers and the title (if generic, or simply a list of the selections on the recording). If the focus of the recording is a performer (say, a vocal recital), the name of the performer may begin the citation. The composer and/or other components may also be omitted if already stated in the prose preceding the citation. Examples (adapted from actual Notes reviews):

    • Something like 90 percent of Partch's recorded legacy is now commercially available, primarily on the CRI and Innova Recordings labels (for example, the reissued or previously unreleased recordings of performances from 1951 to 1982 available inThe Harry Partch Collection, vols. 1–4, CRI CD 751–54 [1997], CD; and performances from 1941 to 1997 in Enclosure 2: Historic Speech-Music Recordings from the Harry Partch Archives, Innova 401 [1995], CD; Enclosure 5: On an Ancient Greek Theme, etc., Innova 405 [1998], CD; and Enclosure 6: Delusion of the Fury, Innova 406 [1999], CD).

    • Today, Georg Philipp Telemann's Passion oratorio Seliges Erwägen des bittern Leidens und Sterbens Jesu Christi is little known outside the small circle of Telemann scholars and devotees, despite an excellent recording by Wolfgang Schäfer with the Freiburger Vokalensemble and L'Arpa Festante of Munich (Amati SRR 8905/1-2 [1989], CD; reissued as Passions-Oratorium, Brilliant Classics 99521/1–2 [2002]).

    • All seven of Bacewicz's acknowledged string quartets, alongside the two piano quintets (1952, 1965), have been recorded by the Amar Corde String Quartet and pianist Waldemar Malicki (The Complete Works for String Quartet, Acte Préalable AP0019-21 [1999], 3 CDs).

    • The Ramones, "Rock 'n' Roll High School," End of the Century, Sire Records SRK 6077 (1980), LP; reissue with additional material: Sire/Warner Bros./Rhino R2 78155 (2002), CD. A different recording of the same song also appeared on Rock 'n' Roll High School: Music from the Original Motion Picture Sound Track, various performers, featuring the Ramones, Sire Records SRK 6070 (1979), LP; reissued on CD in the 1980s: Sire 6070-2.



    Video Recordings

    Formatted essentially like sound recordings, though additional fields may be desirable, such as producer and/or director, presence of subtitles. Examples:

    • Benjamin Britten: A Time There Was: A Profile of Benjamin Britten, dir. by Tony Palmer, Kultur D1158 (2006), DVD; originally issued by Kultur in 1980 on VHS.

      Angela Hewitt: Bach Performance on the Piano, prod. Ludger Böckenhoff & Nico Heinrich, dir. Uli Aumüller, Hyperion Records DVDA68001 (2008), 2 DVDs. Disc 1: Lecture recital (includes optional subtitles in eight languages); disc 2: Angela Hewitt Live in Concert: J. S. Bach's Partita no. 4 in D Major, BWV 828; Italian Concerto in F Major, BWV 971; Chromatic Fantasy & Fugue in D Minor, BWV 903.

Web Sites

  • Notes uses recent "access" dates to verify the validity of Web URLs. These are accessed/verified/provided by the journal's editors late in the editorial process. Editors: For URL access dates: at manuscript stage, use an advance date near the ending time of the first-proofs review, so that the date will not require revision in first proofs. Editors must again verify URLs at first proof stage. For articles with many URL citations, a single accession date for all may be cited following the author's biographical note: "URLs cited herein accessed 10 March 2015."

  • For documents on the Web that include signigicant creation dates, it is recommended to include those dates in addition to the accession dates:
  • Association of College & Research Libraries, "Framework for Information Literacy in Higher Education" (adopted by the ACRL board, 11 January 2016), (accessed 18 May 2016).

  • When accessing a paid subscription Web site through a proxy server (the usual setup for getting to Grove Music Online, Music Index, and other music resources provided for a library's users), the URL displayed in the Web browser will not be useful toNotes readers in other locations. Authors should attempt to identify the URL for the site used by private subscribers to the site, such as are provided in this style sheet examples.

    In footnotes:

    • Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, FamilySearch: Internet Genealogy Service, (accessed 15 June 2013)

    • The Music Index, (accessed 15 June 2013).

    • RILM Abstracts of Music Literature, (accessed 15 June 2013).

    • International Index to Music Periodicals, (accessed 15 June 2013).

  • In running text:

    There is some flexibility here depending upon the context. Examples:
      • The Library of Congress has acquired several notable collections, available to researchers in the Performing Arts Reading Room. Additional details about these collections may be found at LC's "Special Collections of the Music Division," (accessed 15 June 2013).

      • For a description of selective vs. core coverage in RILM, and a list of journals in these categories, see RILM's "Journal" page at (accessed 15 June 2013). Lists of journals indexed by The Music Index may be found atMI's "Contents List" at (accessed 15 June 2013).