Notes Style Sheet

ABBREVIATIONS

NOTE: See also Musical Compositions ADDLINK  for examples in context, and Digital Technology ADDLINK  for technological abbreviations.

  • Use small caps. with periods for A.D. (not A.D. or AD) and B.C. or B.C.E. (use author's preference). Notes is not changing to AD, BC, BCE (without periods) as in CMS16, 9.35.
  • Use A.D. 618–907 (not 618–907 A.D.)
  • Common abbreviations of music sets, e.g., collected editions (when used extensively in an article or review) are in italics: NBA not NBA (for Neue Bach-Ausgabe; see CMS16, 14.54)
  • Common abbreviations of music series, e.g., LC class M2 (when used extensively in an article or review) are in roman: CMM not CMM (for Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae)
  • Use numerals for liturgical days and weeks; thus 12th Sunday after Trinity (not Twelfth)
  • Avoid beginning a sentence with an abbreviation or acronym
  • Do not use abbreviations in running text except:
    • ca. for circa (not c.); keep roman
    • D.M.A. (Doctor of Musical Arts) not DMA (as in CMS16, 10.20)
    • fl. for floruit (i.e., flourished) (not fl.); keep roman
    • illus. for illustration(s) or illustrated in physical descriptions
    • m., mm. for measure, measures (do not use "bar," "bars"). Note that "mm" (for millimeters) is not followed by a period.
    • M.A. (Master of Arts) not MA (as in CMS16, 10.20)
    • no., nos. for number, numbers (for titles of musical works)
    • op., opp. for opus, opera (when part of the title of a musical work, such as Beethoven's String Quartets, op. 18; but spell out as opus when no other title is mentioned: Beethoven's opus 18)
    • Ph.D. not PhD (as in CMS16, 10.20)
    • rpm (revolutions per minute) not r.p.m.
  • Use the following abbreviations in parenthetical citations (most in CMS16, 10.40, including many additional scholarly abbreviations):
  • Use the following abbreviations in parenthetical citations (most in CMS16, 10.40, including many additional scholarly abbreviations):
    • abbrev. for abbreviation (not abbr.)
    • acc. for accompanied or accompaniment
    • arr. for arranged
    • avail. for available
    • bk. for book
    • bks. for books
    • b&w for black and white
    • CD for compact disc in discographic citations (but prefer spelled out in running text)
    • chap. for chapter [Holoman 2.71 uses ch.; Holoman2 2.71 gives option of ch. or chap.]
    • crit. for critical
    • diss. for dissertation
    • distrb. for distributor (not distr.)
    • ed. for edited/editor
    • eds. for editors
    • ex. for example
    • exx. for examples [Holoman 2.71 uses exs.; Holoman2 2.71 gives option of exs. or exx.]
    • fig. for figure
    • fol., fols. for folio, folios (not f., ff., which mean "on the following page(s)"); for recto & verso, use r, v, or r/v on the text line (not superscript): fol. 34r; fol. 55r/v
    • illus. for illustration(s) or illustrated
    • introd. for introduction (not intro.)
    • M.M. for metronome Maelzel. Example: "M.M. [quarter note] = 108" (actual note will replace "[quarter note]" during production)
    • mvt. for movement
    • MS, MSS for manuscript, manuscripts
    • n. for note (i.e., footnote); formulation: p. 1 n. 4 [no comma]
    • no. for number
    • nos. for numbers
    • n.p. for "no place" (not s.l.) and for "no publisher" (not s.n.) in bibliographic citations.When neither place nor publisher can be ascertained, a single n.p. may serve for both (CMS16, 10.43).Use lower-case n. for notes (in running text or footnotes), and capital N. only in bibliographies (where N. follows a period)—examples: (Boston: n.p., 1889); (n.p., 1840); Watson, Henry. Song of the Guilded Hand. N.p., 1840.
    • p. for page
    • pp. for pages (except in citations at the head of reviews, which use p. alone; and for the formulation p. 479ff.)
    • par. for paragraph
    • pl. no. for plate number on engraved music (do not use to refer to a numbered plate containing a facsimile or other illustration)
    • pt. for part
    • pub. for published, publisher (not publ.)
    • sez. for sezione
    • suppl. for supplement (not supp.)
    • syst. for system (not sys.)
    • trans. for translated/translation/translator
    • vol. for volume
    • vols. for volumes
    • 2d for 2nd (CMS16 prefers 2nd; Notes follows CMS14, 8.4)
    • 3d for 3rd (CMS16 prefers 3rd; Notes follows CMS14, 8.4)

Examples:

  • Smith discusses the opera at length in chapter 6.
  • Smith's discussion of the opera (chap. 6) is lengthy.
  • Handel's opus 3 is his most frequently recorded orchestral work.
  • Handel's first set of concerti grossi (op. 3) is his most frequently recorded orchestral work.

Do not abbreviate the following:

  • reprint not repr.

Geographical abbreviations:

For states: Use the two-letter postal abbreviations in headings, footnotes, and bibliographic citations. In running text, however, spell out the names of states, territories, and possessions of the United States when standing alone, and when following the name of a city (see CMS16, 10.28); thus Concord, New Hampshire, in running text, not Concord, NH. But use D.C. (not DC or District of Columbia) and U.K. (not UK or United Kingdom) in running text (CMS15, 15:31, option 1). Notes no longer uses the older state abbreviations.

Languages (used primarily in review headings):

  • Eng. (English)
  • Fr.(French)
  • Ger. (German)
  • Hung. (Hungarian)
  • It. (Italian)
  • Lat. (Latin)
  • Rus. (Russian)
  • Sp. (Spanish)
  • Gk. (Greek)