Use small caps. with periods for A.D. (not A.D. or AD) and B.C. or B.C.E. (use author's preference). Notes is not changing to AD, BC, BCE (without periods) as in CMS16, 9.35.
Use A.D. 618–907 (not 618–907 A.D.)
Common abbreviations of music sets, e.g., collected editions (when used extensively in an article or review) are in italics: NBA not NBA (for Neue Bach-Ausgabe; see CMS16, 14.54)
Common abbreviations of music series, e.g., LC class M2 (when used extensively in an article or review) are in roman: CMM not CMM (for Corpus Mensurabilis Musicae)
Use numerals for liturgical days and weeks; thus 12th Sunday after Trinity (not Twelfth)
Avoid beginning a sentence with an abbreviation or acronym
Do not use abbreviations in running text except:
ca. for circa (not c.); keep roman
D.M.A. (Doctor of Musical Arts) not DMA (as in CMS16, 10.20)
fl. for floruit (i.e., flourished) (not fl.); keep roman
illus. for illustration(s) or illustrated in physical descriptions
m., mm. for measure, measures (do not use "bar," "bars"). Note that "mm" (for millimeters) is not followed by a period.
M.A. (Master of Arts) not MA (as in CMS16, 10.20)
no., nos. for number, numbers (for titles of musical works)
op., opp. for opus, opera (when part of the title of a musical work, such as Beethoven's String Quartets, op. 18; but spell out as opus when no other title is mentioned: Beethoven's opus 18)
Ph.D. not PhD (as in CMS16, 10.20)
rpm (revolutions per minute) not r.p.m.
Use the following abbreviations in parenthetical citations (most in CMS16, 10.40, including many additional scholarly abbreviations):
abbrev. for abbreviation (not abbr.)
acc. for accompanied or accompaniment
arr. for arranged
avail. for available
bk. for book
bks. for books
b&w for black and white
CD for compact disc in discographic citations (but prefer spelled out in running text)
chap. for chapter [Holoman 2.71 uses ch.; Holoman2 2.71 gives option of ch. or chap.]
crit. for critical
diss. for dissertation
distrb. for distributor (not distr.)
ed. for edited/editor
eds. for editors
ex. for example
exx. for examples [Holoman 2.71 uses exs.; Holoman2 2.71 gives option of exs. or exx.]
fig. for figure
fol., fols. for folio, folios (not f., ff., which mean "on the following page(s)"); for recto & verso, use r, v, or r/v on the text line (not superscript): fol. 34r; fol. 55r/v
illus. for illustration(s) or illustrated
introd. for introduction (not intro.)
M.M. for metronome Maelzel. Example: "M.M. [quarter note] = 108" (actual note will replace "[quarter note]" during production)
mvt. for movement
MS, MSS for manuscript, manuscripts
n. for note (i.e., footnote); formulation: p. 1 n. 4 [no comma]
no. for number
nos. for numbers
n.p. for "no place" (not s.l.) and for "no publisher" (not s.n.) in bibliographic citations.
When neither place nor publisher can be ascertained, a single n.p. may serve for both (CMS16, 10.43).
Use lower-case n. for notes (in running text or footnotes), and capital N. only in bibliographies (where N. follows a period)—examples: (Boston: n.p., 1889); (n.p., 1840); Watson, Henry. Song of the Guilded Hand. N.p., 1840.
p. for page
pp. for pages (except in citations at the head of reviews, which use p. alone; and for the formulation p. 479ff.)
par. for paragraph
pl. no. for plate number on engraved music (do not use to refer to a numbered plate containing a facsimile or other illustration)
pt. for part
pub. for published, publisher (not publ.)
sez. for sezione
suppl. for supplement (not supp.)
syst. for system (not sys.)
trans. for translated/translation/translator
trans. for translated/translation/translator
vol. for volume
vs., v. for versus. "Both are acceptable abbreviations of versus, but they differ in application: vs. is more common except in names of law cases, in which v. is the accepted abbreviation" (Garner3, s.v. "v.").
2d for 2nd (CMS16 prefers 2nd; Notes follows CMS14, 8.4)
3d for 3rd (CMS16 prefers 3rd; Notes follows CMS14, 8.4)
Smith discusses the opera at length in chapter 6.
Smith's discussion of the opera (chap. 6) is lengthy.
Handel's opus 3 is his most frequently recorded orchestral work.
Handel's first set of concerti grossi (op. 3) is his most frequently recorded orchestral work
Abbreviating Instruments and Voices
In isolated examples in running text, names of instruments and voices are spelled out. In tables, charts, work lists, etc., space considerations may make it desirable to abbreviate instruments & voices. There are no standard abbreviations for these. Notes uses the abbreviations employed by IMSLP: Petrucci Music Library (see http://imslp.org/wiki/IMSLP:Abbreviations_for_Instruments); this source is freely available on the Web without membership or subscription cost. Instruments and voices are listed there alphabetically in English, with their abbreviations, as well as their names in French, German, Italian, and Spanish.
The following description of formatting is adapted from the IMSLP page cited above, and the Edwin F. Kalmus Web site (https://www.efkalmus.com/hto.html#inst):
Abbreviations should be used in the following sequence, and in score-order within each grouping:
- Voices: solo voices first, then choruses
- Solo Instruments: woodwinds, brass, percussion, strings, keyboard
- Ensembles: woodwinds, brass, percussion, strings, orchestra, continuo
For orchestral works, a “standard” format has developed for the most-used woodwinds & brass (4 each; note the separation by periods, without spaces), e.g.:
“188.8.131.52 — 184.108.40.206” = 2 each flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon —
4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, 1 tuba
Commonly-associated auxiliary instruments (flute & auxiliary piccolo, oboe & auxiliary English horn, B♭ clarinet & auxiliary bass clarinet, bassoon & auxiliary contrabassoon — trumpet & auxiliary cornet, trombone & auxiliary euphonium, tuba & auxiliary Wagner tuba) are linked to their respective primary instruments as follows:
Auxiliary, as well as associated named instruments, are indicated by (1) a forward slash “/” = may be performed by either/or the associated instrument; (2) letter “d” = player doubles on the auxiliary or named instrument; (3) plus sign “+” = anextra player is required for the auxiliary or named instrument; and (4) parentheses “( )” = associated or named instrument is optional.
Here are four rudimentary examples:
- fl.vn.(pf) = flute & violin play together, with optional piano accompaniment
- fl/vn.pf = flute OR violin, with piano accompaniment
- fl+1.vln.pf = flute, with extra player on associated piccolo, play together with violin and piano
- ob+oda.vln.pf = oboe, with extra player on oboe d’amore, play together with violin and piano
A more complicated example (borrowed from the Kalmus Web site):
- 3d1+1.2+1.3d1(+E♭).3+1 — 8d4.4d2.4.2(d1).2timp.perc.2hp.str
indicates 3 flutes, one of which doubles piccolo, plus a fourth player playing piccolo only; 2 oboes plus a third player for English horn; 3 clarinets, one doubling bass clarinet, plus a fourth (optional) player for E♭ clarinet; 3 bassoons plus a contrabassoon; 8 horns, 4 doubling Wagner tubas; 4 trumpets, 2 doubling cornet; 4 trombones; 2 tubas, one doubling euphonium (optionally); 2 timpanists; percussion; 2 harps, and strings.
“str” (strings) defaults in orchestral works to 220.127.116.11 (violins I & II, violas, cellos, double basses). If strings distribution differs from this default, specify in square brackets, as shown below.
Square brackets may be used to give more details:
- fch[2sop.alt] = female chorus, consisting of [2 soprano and one alto parts]
- str[18.104.22.168] = strings, consisting of [2 violin sections, no violas, & one each cello & double-bass sections].
- fl.ob.cl[E♭].hn.bn = flute, oboe, clarinet in [E♭], horn, bassoon
If abbreviations for instruments & voices are used, a key to them (alphabetical by abbreviation) must be given at the head of the table/chart/catalog, or in a footnote, e.g., “alt=alto voice — acc=accordion — afl=alto flute — cl[A]=clarinet in A,” etc.
Do not abbreviate the following:
reprint not repr.
For states: Use the two-letter postal abbreviations in headings, footnotes, and bibliographic citations. In running text, however, spell out the names of states, territories, and possessions of the United States when standing alone, and when following the name of a city (see CMS16, 10.28); thus Concord, New Hampshire, in running text, not Concord, NH. But use D.C. (not DC or District of Columbia) and U.K. (not UK or United Kingdom) in running text (CMS15, 15:31, option 1). Notes no longer uses the older state abbreviations.
Languages (used primarily in review headings):