Music Discovery Requirements

III.K Expressions and Manifestations: Geographic Area (and Ethnic/National Group)

For Western art music, geographic area is arguably a less important attribute for expressions and manifestations than it is for musical works. For other musics, however, geographic area of expression or manifestation may be of interest to users, not only because geographic area may be disputable at the work level, but also due to its reflection in the changes that occur as a musical work travels from place to place. These other musics have traditionally received the most subject access, as detailed in II.J. Note that the concerns expressed in that section regarding conflation or confusion of geographic area with ethnicity apply here as well.

For recordings, geographic area of the expression is often included in a note; however, this is a free-text field not designed for machine manipulation. This note (which may contain other information about the recording, particularly the date) should be indexed in general keyword indexes and displayed. For scores, geographic area of the expression is a more abstract concept and infrequently contained in bibliographic data. MARC 033 is defined to record date/time and place of event but is not regularly coded. As it becomes more common to parse this information out in various MARC 518 subfields, locations recorded in $p may become useful in this regard.

Geographic area of the manifestation is regularly recorded in the publication statement and coded in MARC 008/15-17, providing an easily machine-actionable field for creation of facets or limits. For books published in their original language, geographic area of manifestation may be a somewhat successful approximation of geographic area of the work. For musical scores and recordings, this is not true. Care should be taken that any facets, limits, or displays created from geographic area of manifestation area are clearly labeled as referring to place of publication.

Recommendation: Display notes relating to geographic area of expressions and manifestations, and include them in general keyword indexes. If place of publication is used to create facets, limits, or displays, ensure that it is clearly labeled as such.

Index and display (Bibliographic/Descriptive Metadata):

MARC: 008/15-17 Place of publication, production, or execution (display code in vernacular)

MARC: 033 Date/Time and Place of an Event

MARC: 260 $a$e Publication, Distribution, etc. (Imprint)-Place of publication, distribution, etc.; Place of manufacture

MARC: 264 $a Place of production, publication, distribution, manufacture

MARC: 518 $p Date/Time and Place of an Event Note-Place of event (also display $a, and index $a in general keyword index, but not in a place of publication index.)

Dublin Core: coverage

EBUCore: hasCoverage

MODS: geographic; originInfo.place

PBCore: pbcoreCoverage (coverageType = Spatial)

BIBFRAME 2.0: Classes: bf:Place, bf:; Properties: bf:place, bf:geographicCoverage

Facets/Limits (Bibliographic/Descriptive Metadata):

MARC: 008/15-17 Place of publication, production, or execution (display code in vernacular)

Dublin Core: coverage

EBUCore: hasCoverage
MODS: geographic
PBCore: pbcoreCoverage (coverageType = Spatial)

BIBFRAME: Classes: bf:Place, bf:; Properties: bf:place, bf:geographicCoverage