Music Discovery Requirements

III.I Expressions and Manifestations: Dates

Like musical works, musical expressions and manifestations have many associated dates. Discovery interfaces commonly allow searching, limiting, and faceting by date, most frequently exploiting publication date, which is regularly recorded in bibliographic data in an easily machine-actionable form. However, other dates often hold equal or greater importance for music materials. Unfortunately, these dates may be buried in notes or completely absent from bibliographic data. One particular limitation for MARC is the fact that MARC 008/07-14 only has space to record two years. Ideally, date indexing, faceting, and limiting should take into account the full spectrum of dates associated with music materials. When this is not feasible, “date” searches/limits/facets should at a minimum clearly identify the type of dates being exploited; for example, using the label “Publication Date” rather than just “Date,” if only publication dates are included.

Creation date is associated with musical works and is discussed in II.F.

Performance date is an important expression-level attribute for recorded music. Users may seek particular performances, or they may use the performance date to select an expression from a particular decade. Performance date is often included in bibliographic data for recordings, though it is usually buried in notes. For popular musics, chronological subdivisions are frequently added to genre headings indicating the decade of the expression.

Publication date is primarily important as an access point for manifestations of notated music. For notated music, creation date for the expression will often have to be approximated by the date of publication of the first manifestation of that expression.

Expression date is occasionally included in standardized titles. In addition, past (pre-1990s) practice was to add the manifestation date routinely to standardized titles, and this use may still be present in some legacy data. Adding manifestation date to bibliographic records is now allowed and some libraries do encode this data.

Recommendation: Many dates are important to music materials, and because of this variety, it is easy for discovery interfaces to be misleading regarding dates. For the present, best practice is to index and display all dates, consider the dates included in the index(es), and give an appropriate label. Also creatively explore ways to tease out the different kinds of dates and present them to the user in a useful way.

Index and display (Bibliographic/Descriptive Metadata):

MARC: 008/07-10 (Date 1); 008/11-14 (Date2) (consider using code in 008/06 to generate vernacular display label)

MARC: 033 Date/Time and Place of an Event (display code in vernacular) (has not been regularly coded for music)

MARC: 046 $b$c$d$e Special Coded Dates, (use codes in $a to generate vernacular display labels and to properly interpret dates coded in $b$c$d$e. $k$l contain work level date information and are addressed in II.F )

MARC: 111; 711; 811 $d Date of meeting

MARC: 100, 110, 111; 130; 240; 700; 710; 711; 730; 800; 810; 811 $f Date of a work (100, 110, and 111 are defined but in reality rarely used because AACR2 title main entry information is placed in 240)

MARC: 260 $c Date of publication, distribution, etc.

MARC: 264 $c Date of production, publication, distribution, manufacture, or copyright notice

MARC: 502 $d Dissertation Note, Year degree granted

MARC: 518 $d Date of event[1]

MARC: 534 $c Original Version Note, Publication, distribution, etc. of original, (includes dates)
MARC: 650 $y Subject Added Entry--Topical Term, Chronological subdivision

Dublin Core: date

EBUCore: dateBroadcast; dateCreated; dateDigitised; dateDistributed; dateIssued

MODS: dateCreated, dateModified and copyrightDate in dateIssued, and possibly dateOther

PBCore: pbcoreAssetDate + dateType; pbcoreCoverage (coverageType = Temporal); pbcoreInstantiation (instantiationDate)

BIBFRAME 2.0: Properties: bf:date, bf:copyrightDate

Facets/Limits (Bibliographic/Descriptive Metadata):

MARC: 008/07-10; 008/11-14; 046 $k$l; or dates in 260 $c and 264 $c could be used to create date limits, but care should be exercised as discussed above.

Dublin Core: date

EBUCore: dateBroadcast; dateCreated; dateDigitised; dateDistributed; dateIssued

MODS: dateCreated; dateModified; copyrightDate; dateOther

PBCore: pbcoreAssetDate; pbcoreCoverage (coverageType = Temporal); pbcoreInstantiation (instantiationDate)

Related MARC Authority Fields:

MARC: 046; 111 $d; 150 $y


[1] While 518$a contains date information in legacy data, it also contains additional free-text information that would be difficult for machine parsing, so 518$a is not recommended for inclusion in date indexes.