Music Discovery Requirements

III.C Expressions and Manifestations: Identifying Numbers

Opus, thematic index, and serial numbers are associated with musical works and are discussed in II.C.

Whereas the ISBN and ISSN serve as fairly uniform standard numbers for books and serials, music materials have a wide variety of numbers associated with expressions and especially with manifestations. These numbers include ISMN, ISBN, ISRC, UPC, EAN, sound and video recording issue numbers, matrix numbers, and plate, publisher, and distributor numbers.[1]. Discovery systems should index and display all of these associated numbers, including ISBN and ISSN, sometimes also found on notated music.

Plate numbers and publisher numbers are often the key to a successful search for a specific publication of a printed score. Users may seek an exact match of a score for an accompanist, teacher, conductor, or other ensemble members; users may seek a particular error or revision in a score that was printed by a specific publisher from a specific time period; catalogers may seek additional clues when the date of publication is not found. Much legacy data contains variations in recording plate numbers and publisher numbers.

Discovery systems often allow searches by indexed plate and publisher numbers. Systems will ideally algorithmically process letter strings, punctuation, and ranges of consecutive numbers so that these numbers can be searched, filtered, and browsed in a meaningful way.

Recommendation: Index and display all associated numbers. Utilize system algorithms to include in indexing all numbers in a consecutive range where only first and last numbers are recorded.

Index and Display (Bibliographic/Descriptive Metadata):

MARC: 020 $a$z ISBN ($z is a canceled/invalid standard number or code; make local decision on inclusion)

MARC 022 $a$z ISSN ($z is a cancelled/invalid standard number or code; make local decision on inclusion)

MARC: 024 $a$z Other Standard Identifier ($z is a canceled/invalid standard number or code; make local decision on inclusion) (use first indicator to generate display label)

MARC: 028 Publisher or Distributor Number (use first indicator to generate display label) (display but do not index $q)[2]

Dublin Core: identifier

EBUCore: identifier

MODS: identifier

PBCore: pbcoreInstantiation (instantiationIdentifier)

BIBFRAME 2.0: Classes: bf:Identifier (Subclasses: bf:AudioIssueNumber, bf:CopyrightNumber, bf:Doi, bf:Ean, bf:Isbn, bf:Ismn, bf:Isrc, bf:AudioTake,bf:Iswc, bf:Lccn, bf:MatrixNumber, bf:MusicDistributorNumber, bf:MusicPlate, bf:MusicPublisherNumber, bf:StockNumber, bf:Upc, bf:Urn); Properties: bf:identifiedBy

Facets/Limits (Bibliographic/Descriptive Metadata):

Facets/limits by identifying number are rarely useful for expressions and manifestations; such facets/limits would only occasionally yield more than one result.

Related Authority Fields:

MARC: 020; 024 (024 is defined, but rarely used)


[1] ISMN: International Standard Music Number; ISRC: International Standard Recording Code; EAN: International Article Number; matrix number: used to indicate sound recording masters, often used to identify 78s. Though not always unique, the numbers are still very valuable.

[2] MARC 028 renamed and redefined to include distributor numbers in 2016.