Music Discovery Requirements

II.F Musical Works: Dates

Creation date is an important, though neglected, access point for musical works. Users may seek works composed in a particular date range, which might be a specific individual year or decade, or a more broad era of music history (such as “baroque era” or “medieval era," often indicative of style). Users may also use creation date to identify the work they are seeking, particularly to distinguish it from other works with similar titles and other attributes. With most books and articles (except classic literature) publication date is a fairly accurate approximation of creation date, but this is not true for musical works because a single musical work frequently exists in many expressions and manifestations. In current practice, creation date(s) can be recorded in MARC 046 $k$l in both bibliographic and authority formats. Additionally, MARC 388 (Time Period of Creation) has been available in both bibliographic and authority formats since October 2014, but is not yet widely used.[1] Some approximation of creation era might be possible by exploiting composer birth/death date information. MARC 045 may be used to record period or date of composition, but this field has not been used consistently since the Library of Congress announced it would cease coding 045, in March 1989.

Creation date and other temporal aspects associated with musical works may also be reflected in chronological subdivisions from topical subject headings found in $y of MARC 650 fields. Although $y and other subfields are defined for 655 genre/form headings, the LCGFT manual prohibits subdivision of genre/form terms.[2] Chronological subdivisions are not consistently present due to subject cataloging rules (some headings are allowed to subdivide, and others are not) and they may also represent other associated temporal aspects besides creation date. Nor do existing chronological subdivisions correspond to the broad stylistic eras users sometimes seek. Therefore while index and display of chronological subdivision is useful, especially for jazz and popular music, it is problematic for use as a creation date or style facet.

Dates are also associated with expressions and manifestations. For information and discussion on these dates, see III.I.

Recommendation: Index and display creation date and include in facets/limits if present in data. However, this access point has been neglected in much legacy data, making it difficult to implement consistently and accurately as a part of discovery interfaces. Explore exploiting composer birth/death dates to approximate creation era.

Index and Display (Bibliographic/Descriptive Metadata):

MARC: 045 Time Period of Content. (Was not used consistently after LC announced in March 1989 that it would cease coding 045.[3] Legacy data should be evaluated for consistent presence of this field before using as a facet. Display code in vernacular.)

MARC: 046 $k$l$o$p Special Coded Dates. (Use codes in other subfields to generate vernacular display labels and to properly interpret dates coded in $k$l for single works and $o$p for aggregates. Remember that concluding dates are not always clear, particularly for works with complicated histories.)[4]

MARC: 388 Time Period of Creation

MARC: 650 $y Chronological subdivision

Dublin Core: date.created

EBUCore: dateCreated, eventStartDate, eventEndDate, eventPeriod
MODS: originInfo.dateCreated, subject.temporal

PBCore: pbcoreCoverage (coverage, coverageType = Temporal); pbcoreInstantiation (instantiationDate + dateType)

BIBFRAME 2.0: Classes: bf:Temporal, Properties: bf:originDate, bf:temporalCoverage

Facets/Limits (Bibliographic/Descriptive Metadata):

MARC: 045 Time Period of Content. Was not used consistently after LC announced in March 1989 that it would cease coding. Legacy data should be evaluated for consistent presence of this field before using as a facet. (display code in vernacular)

MARC: 046 $k$l Special Coded Dates--Beginning or single date created, Ending date created. Evaluate data for consistent presence before using as facet. (use data and subfield labels to create eye-readable form)

MARC: 388 Time Period of Creation

MARC: 650 $y Chronological subdivision. Problematic due to subject cataloging rules, but commonly used for popular music and jazz headings.

Dublin Core: date.created
EBUCore: dateCreated; eventStartDate; eventEndDate; eventPeriod

MODS: orginInfo.dateCreated

PBCore: pbcoreCoverage (coverage, coverageType = Temporal); pbcoreInstantiation (instantiationDate + dateType)

BIBFRAME 2.0: Classes: bf:Temporal, Properties: bf:originDate, bf:temporalCoverage

Related MARC Authority Fields:

MARC: 150 $y, 046 $k$l (display code in vernacular), 388


[1] For example, as of January 2016, only 159 records in OCLC’s WorldCat database contained field 388. By January 2017, the number grew to 17,038, a noteworthy increase but still a small percentage of records in WorldCat. MARC Usage in WorldCat: 388: Time Period of Creation [New, 2014], accessed August 25, 2017, http://experimental.worldcat.org/marcusage/388.html.

[2] Subject Headings Manual (SHM) J 110. Assigning Genre/Form Terms. January 2016. accessed August 25, 2017, http://www.loc.gov/aba/publications/FreeLCGFT/J110.pdf. “12. Subdivision of genre/form terms. Genre form terms my not be subdivided, neither topically, geographically, chronologically, nor by form.”

[3] Some libraries continued to use MARC 045 after this time.

[4] Recent changes to the DCM Z1 for name and series authority records instruct the cataloger to “use the Extended Date Time Format (EDTF) schema in all cases except for centuries.” With the new prominence of the EDTF schema, it may be necessary to manipulate 046 content to make it suitable for public display. Accessed August 25, 2017.