Types of Composition for Use in Authorized Access Points for Music: a Manual for Use with RDA

Preface

For music catalogers following the guidelines in RDA: Resource Description and Access for constructing access points to represent musical works, the question of what constitutes the name of a generic "type of musical composition" is an important one.

Depending on whether a preferred title is the name of a type or is a distinctive title, different RDA instructions apply for making additions to the title when constructing an authorized access point (RDA 6.28.1.9 versus 6.28.1.10). The distinction between generic types and distinctive titles also affects the choice of language used for the preferred title (RDA 6.14.2.5.2.1) and which elements to include when recording the title proper (RDA 2.3.2.8.1). A "type of composition" is defined in the RDA Glossary as a "form, a genre, or a generic term used frequently by different composers (e.g., capriccio, concerto, intermezzo, Magnificat, mass, movement, muziek, nocturne, requiem, Stück, symphony, suite, Te Deum, trio sonata)." A "distinctive title" is defined as "a title that is not just a form or musical genre, a tempo indication, a number of performers, or a type of liturgical text."

While it is often obvious whether a title is distinctive or is a generic type, this is not always the case. Many titles are ambiguous and difficult to categorize, such as titles that look like generic titles but are not defined in reference sources as such, e.g., divertissement. Some of these terms may be treated as types of compositions, in accordance with RDA's definition of a type, if they are used frequently by different composers; others may not.

RDA 6.14.2.5.2.1 instructs catalogers to record the accepted form of name of a type of composition in a language preferred by the agency creating the data if the name has a cognate form in that language or the same name is used in that language. Thus, for English-language cataloging agencies, the name of the type is recorded in English if the name has an English cognate form, regardless of how the composer spelled it. For instance "symphony" is used, not symphonie, Sinfonie, or sinfonia; thus, the cataloger must know if the term is generic in order to know what language to use. For those types of compositions without English cognates, one must ascertain what language the composer originally used, and use the plural in that language if it is known that the composer has written more than one composition of that type.

The present list is intended to assist music catalogers in determining which terms are to be considered names of types and which are to be considered distinctive. For those cataloging in agencies whose preferred language is English, this list provides guidance on choosing the language to be used for a given preferred title. In addition, the list may also be used as a quick-reference source for plural forms of titles in several languages.

Types of Composition for Use in Authorized Access Points for Musical Works is a revision of Types of Compositions for Use in Music Uniform Titles: A Manual for Use with AACR2 Chapter 25, which was originally created in 1992 and last revised in 2002. The original list and historical information on the rationale and process for developing the list are archived at https://www.musiclibraryassoc.org/page/cmc_accpointsaacr2/. The present version is maintained by the Vocabularies Subcommittee of the MLA Cataloging and Metadata Committee.

For a complete list of changes from the AACR2 List of types to the current RDA List, please see https://www.musiclibraryassoc.org/page/cmc_accpointaacr2rda/.

Principles of the list

The following list of terms that are either "types of compositions" or "distinctive titles" includes equivalent terms in English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish, and in some cases, Czech, Dutch, Hungarian, Latin, and Polish. The list is not exhaustive. The list is organized to reflect practice among English-language cataloging agencies (see note 1 below).

Terms identified as "types" are listed with their plurals, along with the designation "Type," followed by language. These terms should be used in the plural if a composer has written more than one composition of that type with the same title (RDA 6.14.2.5.2.2). Cognates in other languages are listed in "use for…" notes.

Arabesque/Arabesques
  • TYPE (English, French); use for arabesca, arabesco, arabeska, Arabeske.

If a term has no plural listed and is followed by language and a note beginning "use ...", it is a cognate of a preferred term, and the cataloger should refer to that other term to determine its usage.

Arabesca

Terms that are "distinctive" are given only in the singular, followed by the designation "Distinctive" and by language.

Wiegenlied
  • DISTINCTIVE (German)

Many terms include a brief explanation of their usage. It is essential to read this information before constructing an authorized access point.

The list should be used in conjunction with: RDA: Resource Description and Access; Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements (LC-PCC PS); Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21. Throughout this list there are many references to elements contained in these standards. To facilitate use of the list, excerpts from the most frequently cited are included below. Some principles of the list simply reflect historical practice that is undocumented in the current standards, but is nevertheless RDA-compliant. In such cases, Uniform Titles for Music by Michelle Koth (Scarecrow Press, 2008) was consulted.

  1. RDA 6.14.2.5.2.1 (Cognates) RDA 6.14.2.5.2.1
    instructs catalogers to translate terms for types of composition when there is a cognate in the language of the cataloging agency. For English-language cataloging agencies, an English term is used, and when more than one cognate is available in English, the form of term found in a controlled vocabulary such as LCSH is preferred.
  2. RDA 6.28.1.9 (Combination terms)
    Combination terms (e.g., "Theme and variations," "Prelude and fugue") do not appear on this list and are addressed in RDA 6.28.1.9:
    Make additions to access points if the preferred title for the work (see 6.14.2) consists solely of the name of a type, or of two or more types, of composition. Add the following elements (in this order), as applicable:
    1. medium of performance (see 6.28.1.9.1)
    2. numeric designation (see 6.28.1.9.2)
    3. key (see 6.28.1.9.3). 
    Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21 6.14.2.5: A title consisting of two words, each of which alone would be the name of a type of composition, may in combination produce a distinctive title. Generally treat such a compound title as a distinctive title. The treatment of combination terms may also be guided by historical practice as recorded in Koth, Uniform Titles for Music, p. 36-38, including the following points: Treat two or more names of types of composition, when each type is individually present in the work, as generic (e.g., "Scherzo, intermezzo, toccata," "Arietta con variazioni," "Songs or ayres").
    When two or more names of types of composition are used together, and one of the types is not present in the work but instead functions as an adjective, generally treat the title as distinctive (e.g., "Sonate alla fuga," "Symphonic prelude"). Two exceptions are "trio sonata" and "chorale prelude"; these have each been treated as a type of composition historically per Library of Congress Rule Interpretation (LCRI) 5.1B1. While this LCRI has not been carried over into RDA, it is not in conflict with RDA and should still be followed. Modifiers other than medium of performance or number make the phrase a distinctive title--no matter how generic sounding it is (e.g., "Short sonata").
  3. LC-PCC PS for 6.28.1, section on Liturgical Words or Phrases LC practice/PCC practice:
    When the preferred title is a Latin liturgical word or phrase (e.g., "Gloria," "Salve Regina," "Te Deum"), record it in the singular. Exception: Use the plural form "Magnificats," "Masses," or "Requiems" when appropriate. Generally, do not add the medium of performance in the authorized access point.
  4. Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21 6.14.2.5
    MLA recommendation: When a composer uses a word which is normally the name of a type of composition as the title of a work which is definitely not a work of the type designated by the word, do not consider the [preferred] title to be the name of a type of composition.
  5. RDA 6.14.2.5.2.1 (Treatment of Specific Terms)
    The treatment of three specific terms and their cognates are recorded in this list in accordance with RDA 6.14.2.5.2.1: For works called étude, fantasia, or sinfonia concertante or their cognates, record the form of the name in the original language. This is an exception in RDA to the default treatment of using the English cognate. So, for example, "étude" is used when it is the original title, even though there is an English cognate for it.
  6. Tempo markings as types of composition Tempo markings should be considered types of composition. RDA Glossary: Distinctive Title — In the context of musical works, a title that is not just a form or musical genre, a tempo indication, a number of performers, or a type of liturgical text. [emphasis added] When the preferred title is a tempo marking with modifying word(s) (e.g., "Andante sostenuto," "Allegro con brio," "Moderato ma non tanto"), record it in the singular. Titles that include and look similar to tempo markings but are not (e.g., Beethoven's Andante favori or Wieniawski's Adagio élégiaque) are considered distinctive. In case of doubt, consider the title to be a type.

Diacritics

Several diacritics are not available as text, only as images, in Web format. When a term includes a diacritic that is not available, the affected letters in the term will be linked to its image in this section of the document.
  •  These two letters should have a ligature over them.
  •  These two letters should have a ligature over them.
  •  These two letters should have a ligature over them.
  •  These two letters should have a ligature over them.
  •  These letters should have a ligature over them.
  •  These letters should have a ligature over them.

There should be a miagkii znak (not available as an image) at the apostrophe (representing the miagkii znak) from which this is linked. The miagkii znak occupies a space rather than appearing over a letter. A miagkii znak can appear in the following languages appearing in this document: Russian

Use of "double," "triple," etc. in titles of musical works

Words like "double," "triple," etc., in titles of musical works may have various meanings and therefore should be considered in the context of the entire title of each individual work. For example, the word "double" in the titles "Double canon" and "Double fugue" refer to compositional techniques. These titles are types of compositions. A double quartet is not a quartet but an octet, and the title is distinctive. "Double concerto" is more ambiguous, since the word "double" does not refer to a compositional technique, and the work is still a concerto. According to a statement issued on March 7, 1991 by Richard Hunter, the Library of Congress does not consider that the word "double" refers to the statement of medium of performance and therefore "Double concerto" should be treated as distinctive.

Submitting terms for consideration

Do you have a term or title that is being treated inconsistently or about which you are uncertain? Feel free to submit new terms or titles for consideration to Janelle West, task group coordinator, CMC Vocabularies Subcommittee, Types of Composition List Maintenance Task Group. Any supporting citations or documentation you can provide will be appreciated.

A
  • Adagietto/Adagiettos
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Adagio/Adagios
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Agnus Dei
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); fifth item of Ordinary of Mass.
  • Air/Airs
    • TYPE (English); a vocal or instrumental tune.
  • Aire/Aires
    • TYPE (English)
  • Al'bom
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Album
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, French, German)
  • Álbum
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Album leaf
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Albumblatt
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Albumblad
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Albumleaf
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Allegretto/Allegrettos
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Allegro/Allegros
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Alleluia
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Alleluja
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Alleluya
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Allemande/Allemandes
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for allemanda, almain, almaine, alman, almand, almaygne, almayne.
  • Andante/Andantes
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Andantino/Andantinos
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Anglaise/Anglaises
    • TYPE (English, French, German); a late Baroque dance movement in a harpsichord or orchestra suite; also used loosely to refer to any of the English dance types popular during the late 17th century; use for anglez, inglesa, inglese.
  • Anthem/Anthems
    • TYPE (English); a choral setting (in English) of a religious or moral text; frequently used as a conventional collective title. Do not include medium of performance when the anthem is for chorus, with or without instrumental accompaniment, as it is the implied medium. Include medium of performance in all other cases.
  • Antifon
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Antifona
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Antífona
    • DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian, Spanish)
  • Antiphon
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, German)
  • Arabesca
  • Aria/Arias
    • TYPE (English, French, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for Arie, ariia.
  • Arie
    • (German); use aria
  • Arietta/Ariettas
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian, Russian); use for arieta, ariette.
  • Ariette
  • Ariettina/Ariettinas
    • TYPE (English)
  • Arioso/Ariosos
    • TYPE (English); a piece in a songlike style; use for vocal and instrumental works and short arias so titled not part of a larger recitative.
  • Armonia
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Armonía
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Aubade/Aubades
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a piece of morning music; counterpart of serenade or nocturne; use for Aube. Note: Poulenc's Aubade is considered to be distinctive. See 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.
  • Aube
  • Ave Maria
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3);
  • Ayre/Ayres
    • TYPE (English)
B
  • Balada/Baladas
    • TYPE (Russian, Spanish); vocal work; do not confuse with ballata; for instrumental baladas use ballade.
  • Ballad/Ballads
    • TYPE (English); type of folksong or art song in a folk style; when a vocal work, see song for treatment.
  • Ballada
    • (Hungarian, Russian); use ballade for instrumental works so named.
  • Ballade/Ballades
    • TYPE (English, French, German); vocal work; form fixe of 14th- to 15th-century France; also an instrumental piece in narrative style; when given as the title to art songs from the 19th and 20th centuries, see song for treatment; do not confuse with the instrumental ballade.
  • Ballade/Ballades
    • TYPE (English, French, German); an instrumental work (usually for piano) in a narrative style; do not confuse with the vocal ballade; use for instrumental works titled balada, ballada, ballata.
  • Ballata/Ballatas
    • TYPE (Italian); Italian dance song; do not confuse with balada; for instrumental ballatas use ballade.
  • Ballett/Balletts
    • TYPE (English); a late 16th-/early 17th-century English part-song using nonsense refrains. Use for works of English origin or influence.
  • Balletto/Balletti
    • TYPE (Italian); a 15th-century Italian dance; a late 16th-/early 17th-century Italian part-song using nonsense refrains; use for works of Italian origin or influence; a late 16th-century Italian instrumental dance.
  • Basse danse
    • TYPE (English, French, Spanish); the principal court dance during the late Middle Ages and Renaissance; use for bassa danza, bassadanza, basdans.
  • Beguine/Beguines
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian, Spanish); a social dance popular in Europe and American from the 1930s, with a rhythm similar to that of the bolero; use for béguine, bigin, biguine.
  • Berceuse/Berceuses
    • TYPE (French); a quiet song in triple meter or a character piece for instruments.
  • Bicinium/Bicinia
    • TYPE (Latin); a two-voice work for voices, instruments, or keyboard. Generally used as a conventional collective title; use for Bicinien.
  • Blues
    • TYPE (English); use for works employing a 12-bar structure, using flattened 3rds and 7ths; also use when the title indicates a blues-type mood rather than a strict adherence to the 12-bar form.
  • Boceto
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Bolero/Boleros
    • TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian, Russian, Spanish)
  • Boléro
  • Bossa nova
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Portuguese)
  • Bourrée/Bourrées
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for boree, burre.
  • Boutade
    • TYPE (French); 18th-century term for a dance or whole ballet in a fanciful and playful style; the name given to an improvised piece of instrumental music, which, if written down, would have been given the title caprice or fantaisie; use for butada.
  • Brano da concerto
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Burla/Burlas
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian); a humorous instrumental piece.
C
  • Cadence
    • (French); use cadenza when used as the title of an independent work.
  • Cadencia
    • (Spanish); use cadenza when used as the title of an independent work.
  • Cadenza/Cadenzas
    • TYPE (English, Italian); use as a type only when applied to the title of an independent work; not considered a type of composition when applied to cadenzas within concertos; use for Cadence, Cadencia, Kadenz. Use as a conventional collective title for collections of a composer's cadenzas written to accompany three or more separate concertos, etc., by the same or other composers.
  • Canarie
  • Canario
    • (Italian, Spanish); use canary.
  • Canary/Canaries
    • TYPE (English); a form of dance and music popular in Europe from the mid-16th to mid-18th centuries; use for canarie, canario.
  • Canción/Canciónes
    • TYPE (Spanish); use as a type for vocal works; see song for treatment. Use for collections and works specifically titled by the composer, e.g., Revueltas, Silvestre, 1899-1940. [Canciónes, orchestra accompaniment]; Botto, Carlos, 1923-2004. [Canciónes, op. 4]; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works (see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21)
  • Canon/Canons
    • TYPE (English, French, Spanish); use for canone, Kanon, kánon.
  • Canone
  • Cantabile/Cantabiles
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Kantabile.
  • Cantata/Cantatas
    • TYPE (English, Italian); usually used as a conventional collective title; use for cantate, Kantate.
  • Cantate
    • (French); use cantata (for conventional collective titles only)
  • Canticle/Canticles
    • TYPE (English); use as a type for vocal works only; use for cantico, cántico, Canticum, cantique, kantikum.
  • Cantiga/Cantigas
    • TYPE (Spanish); a medieval Iberian monophonic song; generally used as a conventional collective title; use for kantiga.
  • Cantilena
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Cantilène
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Cantione
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Canto/Canti/Cantos
    • TYPE (English, Italian); use as a type for vocal works, see song for treatment. Use for collections and works specifically titled by the composer; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.
  • Cantus
    • DISTINCTIVE (Latin)
  • Canzon
    • (Italian); alternate spelling of canzona; use canzona.
  • Canzona/Canzonas
    • TYPE (English, Italian, Spanish); originally a Provençal troubadour song; later, a piece of 16th-century Italian secular music, 16th- to 17th-century instrumental work; in this usage, not a cognate of canzone; use canzona when a work of this type was originally titled canzone.
  • Canzone/Canzoni
    • TYPE (Italian); an 18th- and 19th-century song-like work for voice or instruments. In this usage, not a cognate of canzona. See song for treatment. Also, an alternate spelling of canzona above; use canzona for a work of this type.
  • Canzonet/Canzonets
    • TYPE (English); late 16th-century English part-song; use for works of English origin or influence.
  • Canzonetta/Canzonettas
    • TYPE (English, Italian); late 16th-century Italian part-song; also used for solo songs and instrumental pieces of a songlike nature; use for cançoneta, canzoneta, canzonette, kantsonetta, Kanzonette.
  • Capriccetto/Capriccetti
    • TYPE (English)
  • Capriccietto/Capriccietti
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Capriccio/Capriccios
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian, Spanish); use for capricho, capricio, kaprichchio.
  • Caprice/Caprices
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for kaprichch, Kaprice, kaprisa, Kaprize.
  • Capricette/Capricetten
    • TYPE (German)
  • Carmen/Carmina
    • TYPE (Latin); word used during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance to refer to various kinds of vocal music and to instrumental music derived from vocal chansons.
  • Carol/Carols
    • TYPE (English); do not apply 6.28.1.9.1 exception, as medium of performance is not implied.
  • Catch/Catches
    • TYPE (English); an English round for 3 voices; generally used as a conventional collective title.
  • Cavatina/Cavatinas
    • TYPE (English, Italian, Spanish); originally signified a short opera aria; now an aria-like vocal piece or a song-like instrumental work; use for independent works titled as such, not for individual cavatinas within operas; use for cavatine, kavatina, Kavatine.
  • Chacarera/Chacareras
    • TYPE (Spanish); Argentine couple dance.
  • Chaconne/Chaconnes
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for chacona, chacony, chakona, ciaccona, ciacona.
  • Chamber concerto
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Chamber music
    • TYPE (English); usually used as a conventional collective title; apply 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21 for a single work with this title that is not a chamber work; use for Kammermusik, musica da camera, musique de chambre.
  • Chamber sonata
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Chamber symphony
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Chanson/Chansons
    • TYPE (French); use as a type for vocal works; a term meaning song in all its uses; spanning a wide range of periods and genres from the troubadour/trouvère repertoires through the secular polyphony of the 14th to 16th centuries to the art song of the 19th and 20th centuries and folk and popular song of all eras. See song for treatment. Use for miscellaneous sets, e.g., Le Jeune, Claude. [Chansons. Selections] or specific collections, e.g., Ravel, Maurice. [Chansons. Nicolette], Janequin, Clément. [Chansons (1528). Réveillez vous, cueurs endormis]; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.
  • Chant/Chants
    • TYPE (English, French); use as a type when applied to vocal works, see song for treatment. Use for collections and works specifically titled by the composer; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.
  • Chast'/Chasti
    • TYPE (Russian); for "movement"; use for an independent work titled as such, not for individual movements of a larger work; see also movement, Satz, tétel.
  • Chœur
  • Choral
  • Choralbearbeitung/Choralbearbeitungen
    • TYPE (German); a vocal or instrumental composition based on a pre-existing sacred melody; do not apply 6.28.1.9 exception.
  • Chorale prelude/Chorale preludes
    • TYPE (English); apply 6.28.1.9.1, exception: do not add a statement of medium of performance if the medium is implied by the title. Implied medium: organ; use for choral prelude, choral prélude, prélude de choral; see also Choralvorspiel
  • Choralvorspiel/Choralvorspiele; Choral-Vorspiel/Choral-Vorspiele
    • TYPE (German); use this form when it is the composer's original title; apply 6.28.1.9.1, exception: do not add a statement of medium of performance if the medium is implied by the title. Implied medium: organ; see also chorale prelude.
  • Chorinho/Chorinhos
    • TYPE (Spanish); various meanings in Brazilian popular music, generically denoting urban instrumental ensemble music, often with one group member as a soloist, consisted mostly of dances of European origin performed at popular festivities; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also choro.
  • Choro/Choros
    • TYPE (Spanish); various meanings in Brazilian popular music, generically denoting urban instrumental ensemble music, often with one group member as a soloist, consisted mostly of dances of European origin performed at popular festivities; use this form when it is the composer's original title; see also chorinho.
  • Composition/Compositions
    • TYPE (English, French); usually used in reference to the process of creating a musical work: also used as a title for an independent work; use for composición, composizione, Komposition, kompozitsiia.
  • Concert piece
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Concertino/Concertinos
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Concerto da camera
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Concerto grosso/Concerti grossi
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Concertone/Concertoni
    • TYPE (English); a rarely-used term meaning "large concerto," the form closely approximates the symphonie concertante; use for Konchertone, Konzertone.
  • Concertpiece
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Concertstück
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Conductus
    • TYPE (Latin); a medieval vocal work for one or more voices; usually used as a conventional collective title.
  • Conga/Congas
    • TYPE (English) Latin-American dance in 2/4 meter with a repeated two-measure rhythmic pattern.
  • Coro
    • (Italian, Spanish); use chorus.
  • Cortège/Cortèges
    • Type (English, French)
  • Cracoviana
  • Cracovienne
  • Credo
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); third item in the Ordinary of Mass.
  • Csárdás
D
  • Dal/Dalok
    • TYPE (Hungarian); use as a type for vocal works; see song for treatment; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.
  • Dance/Dances
    • TYPE (English); use for danse, danza, tánc, tanets, taniec, Tanz.
  • Danse
  • Danza/Danzas
    • TYPE (Spanish); the particular genre of salon music for piano developed in Puerto Rico in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Do not translate to "dance" in the preferred title; for all others, use dance.
  • Danza
    • (Italian); when danza refers to the particular genre of salon music for piano developed in Puerto Rico in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, use Danza and do not translate to "dance" in the preferred title; for all others, use dance.
  • Danzón
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish); Cuban dance form; do not translate to "dance" in preferred title.
  • Decet/Decets
    • TYPE (English); a work for ten players; use for decimette, decimino, dectet, detsimet, Dezett, dixtuor, tentet.
  • Decimette
  • Decimino
  • Dectet
  • Dezett
  • Dialog
    • DISTINCTIVE (German, Russian)
  • Dialogo
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Diálogo
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Dialogue
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, French)
  • Diptych
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Dirge
    • DISTINCTIVE (English); a mournful song for burial or memorial rites or an instrumental piece expressive of similar sentiments.
  • Diversion
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Divertimentino/Divertimentinos
    • TYPE (English, German)
  • Divertimento/Divertimenti
    • TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for divertisment, divertissement (instrumental works only).
  • Divertisment
    • (Russian); use divertimento (for instrumental works). Also a type of 17th- to 18th-century French musical-dramatic entertainment. When found in this context do not use divertimento.
  • Divertissement
  • Division/Divisions
    • TYPE (English); a 17th-century English technique of improvised variation over a ground, written out for didactic or performance purposes; treatment as a type is not limited to 17th-century works; see also divisions on a ground.
  • Divisions on a ground
    • TYPE (English); a 17th-century English technique of improvised variation over a ground, written out for didactic or performance purposes; use this form when the composer's original title includes the phrase "on a ground"; treatment as a type is not limited to 17th-century works; see also division.
  • Dixit Dominus
    • DISTINCTIVE (Latin)
  • Dixtuor
  • Domp
    • English; use dump.
  • Doppelquartett
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Double canon/Double canons
    • TYPE (English, French); use for canon doble, canon double, canone doppio, doble canon, Doppelkanon, dvoĭnoia kanon.
  • Double concerto
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Double quartet/Double quartets
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Doumka
  • Dueto
    • (Spanish); use duet.
  • Duett
    • (German, Hungarian); use duet.
  • Duettino/Duettinos
    • TYPE (Italian); diminutive of duetto; a short and/or concise vocal or instrumental duet; use the plural form Duettini when it appears as 1) part of a heading including another type (e.g., Soli e duettini, guitars (2)) or as 2) a distinctive title for what are actually trios.
  • Duetto
    • (Italian); use duet.
  • Dumka/Dumkas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a type of Ukrainian folk music whose name was adopted in Slavonic countries in the 19th century as a term for a sung lament and later as an instrumental piece; use for doumka.
  • Dumky
    • (English); plural form of dumka; use dumkas.
  • Dump/Dumps
    • TYPE (English); an instrumental piece of the late 16th-early 17th century; use for domp, dumpe.
  • Dumpe
    • (English); use dump.
  • Duo
    • (Italian); use duet.
  • Duo concertante
    • DISTINCTIVE for 20th-century works; TYPE for pre-20th-century works. For pre-20th-century works with titles such as duo concertant, quartetto concertant, etc, (but not titles naming a form, such as sinfonie concertante, rondeau concertante, etc.) consider the word "concertante" or its equivalent to be an adjective or epithet not part of the original title of the work and omit it from the preferred title (see 6.14.2.4 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21). For treatment of duo, see duet.
E
  • Ecossaise/Ecossaises
    • TYPE (English, Hungarian); use for chotis, écossaise, escocesa, Schottische, scozzese.
  • Elegia
  • Élégie
  • Elegie
  • Elegietta/Elegiettas
    • TYPE (English)
  • Entr'acte/Entr'actes
    • TYPE (French)
  • Entwurf
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Epilog
    • DISTINCTIVE (German); use for independent pieces so named. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.
  • Epilogo
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian); use for independent pieces so named. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.
  • Epílogo
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish); use for independent pieces so named. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.
  • Epilogue
    • DISTINCTIVE (English); use for independent epilogues. For epilogues that are part of a larger work,apply 6.14.2.7.1.
  • Épilogue
    • DISTINCTIVE (French); use for independent epilogues. For epilogues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.
  • Episode
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, German)
  • Épisode
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Episodio
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish)
  • Epistle sonata/Epistle sonatas
    • TYPE (English); an instrumental work intended for performance probably following the Epistle of the Mass; not the same as Sonata da chiesa; use for church sonata, Kirche Sonate, sonate all'epistola.
  • Epizód
    • DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)
  • Ėskiz
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Esquisse
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Estampie/Estampies
    • TYPE (English, French, German); instrumental dance form originating in the 13th and 14th centuries; use for estampida, estampita, istampita, istanpitta, stampita.
  • Exercise/Exercises
    • TYPE (English); treat as a type of composition when the term is used to mean "study," "etude," etc.; use for ejercicio, esercizio, exercice; see also Übung.
F
  • Fancie
  • Fancy/Fancies
    • TYPE (English); use for fancie, fansye, phancy, phansie.
  • Fandango/Fandangos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian)
  • Fanfara
  • Fanfare/Fanfares
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for fanfara, fanfarra, fanfarria.
  • Fanfarria
  • Fansye
  • Fantasietta/Fantasiettas
    • TYPE (English, Italian)
  • Feuilles d'album
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Final
    • (English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use finale.
  • Forlana
    • (German, Italian, Spanish, Russian); use forlane.
  • Forlane
    • TYPE (English, French); Italian folkdance; use for forlana, furlana.
  • Fox-trot
    • (English, French, Spanish); use foxtrot.
  • Fox-trott
  • Foxtrot/Foxtrots
    • TYPE (English); 20th-century American social dance in 4/4; use for fokstrot, fox trot, fox-trot, fox-trott, Foxtrott.
  • Fuga
    • (Italian, Russian, Spanish); use fugue.
  • Fugado
  • Fugato/Fugatos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Russian); a fugue-like passage of a larger work that is not a fugue; or a fugue-like piece that in some way does not conform to the rigorous thematic and structural methodology of the fugue; use for fugado.
  • Fuge
  • Fugetta
  • Fughetta/Fughettas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a short or light fugue; use for fugetta.
  • Furiant/Furiants
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); an exuberant Bohemian folkdance.
  • Furlana
G
  • Gaillarde
  • Galop/Galops
    • TYPE (English, French, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Galopp.
  • Galopp
  • Gavotte/Gavottes
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for gavot, gavota, gavotta.
  • Gedichte/Gedichten
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Gesang/Gesänge
    • TYPE (German); use as a type for vocal works; German song or choral work; see song for treatment. Use for works of this type in German and only for sets specifically titled by the composer, e.g., Becker, Gunther. [Gesang]; Beethoven, Ludwig van. [Gesänge, op. 75]; Kreutzer, Conradin. [Gesänge, men's voices, op. 24] For miscellaneous collections use "song", e.g., [Songs. Selections]; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.
  • Giga
    • (Italian, Spanish); use gigue.
  • Gigue/Gigues
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for giga, jig, Jiga, jigge, zhiga.
  • Gimno
    • (Russian); use hymn (for vocal works).
  • Glee/Glees
    • TYPE (English); an English part-song for three or more voices; usually used as a conventional collective title.
  • Gloria
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3); second item of Ordinary of Mass.
  • Gradual/Graduals
    • TYPE (English, German, Spanish); an item of the Proper of the Mass; usually used as a conventional collective title.
  • Graduale
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Graduále
    • TYPE (Hungarian)
  • Graduel
    • TYPE (French)
  • Ground/Grounds
    • TYPE (English)
  • Guajira/Guajiras
    • TYPE (Spanish); use as a type for vocal works; a Cuban narrative song form, usually in 6/8 alternating with 3/4; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.
H
  • Habanera/Habaneras
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Spanish); use for abanera, khabanera, khavanez, havanaise.
  • Halleluia
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Halleluja
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Hallelujah
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Halleluya
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Halleluyah
    • DISTINCTIVE
  • Harmonie
  • Harmony/Harmonies
    • TYPE (English); use for works for wind instruments or a small wind band (oboes, horns, bassoons, etc.); use for harmonie, Harmonie.
  • Himno
    • (Spanish); use hymn (for vocal works)
  • Homage
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Hommage
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Hornpipe/Hornpipes
    • TYPE (English)
  • Hymn/Hymns
    • TYPE (English); for vocal works; usually used as a conventional collective title; use for gimno, himno, Hymne, inno.
  • Hymne
    • (German); use hymn (for vocal works)
I
  • Idilio
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Idillio
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Idyla
    • DISTINCTIVE (Czech)
  • Idyll
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, German)
  • Idylle
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Impromptu/Impromptus
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Spanish); use for ėksprompt, ėkspromt.
  • In nomine/In nomines
    • TYPE (Latin)
  • Inno
    • (Italian); use hymn (for vocal works).
  • Interludio
  • Intermède/Intermèdes
    • TYPE (French); use when this is the title of a character piece; do not apply this treatment to an independent stage work whose title begins with or includes the word intermède; intermèdes that are performed between the acts of a stage work follow 6.14.2.7.1; use for intermedio, intermedium.
  • Intonation/Intonations
    • TYPE (English, French, German); originally an introductory toccata-like piece for keyboard that sets the pitch for a following sacred vocal composition; may also exist independently; use for intonazione.
  • Intrada/Intradas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian); use for entrada, entrata.
  • Introduction/Introductions
    • TYPE (English, French); usually used as the first part of a larger work, although single works with the title do exist (e.g., Telemann, Georg Philipp. [Introduction, recorders (2), continuo, C major]); use for introducción, Introduktion, introduktsiia, introduzione.
  • Introit/Introits
    • TYPE (English, French, Latin); liturgical (see note 3); an item of the proper of the Mass; usually used as a conventional collective title; use for Introitus; distinctive when an instrumental work.
  • Introitus
    • (German, Latin); when a vocal work, use Introit.
J
  • Jácara/Jácaras
    • TYPE (Portuguese, Spanish); a Spanish and Hispano-American dance and musical pattern used in 17th- and 18th-century stage productions, church villancicos, and instrumental variation pieces; use for xácara.
  • Jig
  • Jiga
  • Jigge
  • Jota/Jotas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a lively dance in triple time from northern Spain; use for both instrumental and vocal works; use for khota.
K
  • Kadenz
    • (French); use cadenza when used as the title of an independent work.
  • Kamernaia simfoniia
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Kamernaia sonata
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Kammerkonzert
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Kammersinfonie
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Kammersonate
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Kammersymphonie
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Kanon
  • Kánon
    • (Hungarian); use canon.
  • Kantate
    • (German); use cantata (for conventional collective titles only).
  • Kantilena
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Kantilene
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Kaprichch
  • Khota
    • (Russian); use jota.
  • Klage
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Kontsertshtiuk
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Konzertstück
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Krakowiak/Krakowiaks
    • TYPE (English, German, Polish); Polish folk dance characterized by syncopated rhythms in fast duple time; use for cracoviak, cracoviana, cracovienne, krakoviák, krakoviak.
  • Kujawiak/Kujawiaks
    • TYPE (English, Polish); Polish folk dance characterized by triple time with a displacement of the accent to the second or third beat of the bar, similar to but slower than the mazurka; use for cujawiak, kujaviak.
  • Kyrie
    • TYPE (Greek); liturgical (see note 3); first item of Ordinary of Mass.
L
  • Ladainha
    • DISTINCTIVE (Portuguese)
  • Lament
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Lamentáció
    • DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)
  • Lamentación
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Lamentation
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Lamentazione
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Lamento
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish)
  • Largo/Largos
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Laulu/Laulut
    • TYPE (Finnish); use as a type for vocal works; see song for treatment; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.
  • Lavolta
    • (English, French); use volta
  • Lección/Lecciónes
    • TYPE (Spanish)
  • Lectura/Lecturas
    • TYPE (Spanish)
  • Lecture/Lectures
    • TYPE (French)
  • Legend
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Légende
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Lektion/Lektionen
    • TYPE (German)
  • Lendler
  • Lento
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian)
  • Lesson/Lessons
    • TYPE (English)
  • Lesung/Lesungen
    • TYPE (German)
  • Letanía
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Lezion/Lezioni
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Lied/Lieder
    • TYPE (German); use as a type for vocal works; see song for treatment; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.
  • Litanei
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Litania
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Litanie
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Litany
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
M
  • Madrigal/Madrigals
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Russian, Spanish); use for vocal works of this type; when an instrumental work is titled "Madrigal," treat this title as DISTINCTIVE. Use for madrigaal, madrigale, madrygał.
  • Maestoso
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Malagueña/Malagueñas
    • TYPE (Spanish); a type of instrumental piece, song, or dance in the flamenco style; use for malaguėn'ia.
  • Mambo/Mambos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish)
  • March/Marches
    • TYPE (English); use for marcha, marche, marcia, mars, Marsch, marsh, marsz; see also induló.
  • Marcha
    • (Portuguese, Spanish); use march.
  • Marche
  • Marcia
  • Marcietta/Marciettas
    • TYPE (English); diminutive form of "marcia;" use for works in the form of a march.
  • Mars
  • Marsch
  • Marsh
  • Marsz
  • Mass/Masses
    • TYPE (English); use as the first word of a distinctive title so named by the composer (e.g., Hytrek, Theopane. [Mass in honor of Saint John the Evangelist]) or as a generic title with qualifiers when needed to distinguish between a composer's masses or produce a more logical arrangement (e.g., Haydn, Joseph. [Masses, H. XXII, 9, C major], Bruckner, Anton. [Masses, E minor]); use for messa, messe, misa, missa, mise, mša, msza.
  • Mazurca
  • Mazurek
  • Mazurka/Mazurkas
    • TYPE (Czech, English, French, German, Hungarian, Russian); use for mazur, mazurca, mazurek.
  • Melodia
    • (Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use melody.
  • Melodie
    • (Czech, Dutch, German); use melody.
  • Mélodie/Mélodies
    • TYPE (French); apply LC-PCC PS for 6.14.2.5; use for a French work for 1) solo voice and keyboard stringed instrument, in which case do not include the medium of performance in the authorized access point (6.28.1.9), e.g., Chausson. Ernest [Mélodies, op. 2] or for 2) solo voice and accompaniment of other than a solo keyboard stringed instrument or without accompaniment, in which case indicate the medium of accompaniment or absence of accompaniment in the authorized access point (6.28.1.9). See song for treatment. "Mélodies," in these cases, do not have the same meaning as the cognate in other languages.
  • Melodja
  • Melody/Melodies
    • TYPE (English); see LC-PCC PS for 6.14.2.5: considered a type distinct from the French "mélodie" (e.g., Cage, John. [Melodies, violin, keyboard instrument]). Use for melodia, melodie (use for the French "Mélodie" when medium of performance is other than specified in LC-PCC PS for 6.14.2.5), melodiia, melodja.
  • Menuet
  • Menuett
    • (German, Hungarian); use minuet.
  • Menuetto
  • Messa
    • (Italian); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Puccini, Giacomo. [Messa di Gloria]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Messe
    • (French, German); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Gilles, Jean. [Messe des morts]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Milonga/Milongas
    • TYPE (Spanish); a traditional song genre of Uruguay and Argentina; an Argentinian dance, forerunner of the tango; a piece of music for this dance; use for both vocal and instrumental works.
  • Miniatiura
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Miniatur
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Miniatűr/Miniatűrök
    • DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)
  • Miniatura
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish)
  • Miniatura/Miniatury
    • DISTINCTIVE (Polish)
  • Miniature
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, French)
  • Miniatuur
    • DISTINCTIVE (Dutch)
  • Minué
  • Minuet/Minuets
    • TYPE (English); use for menuet, Menuett, menuetto, minué, minuete, minuetto.
  • Minuete
    • (Portuguese, Spanish); use minuet.
  • Minuetto
  • Misa
    • (Spanish); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Sojo, Vicente Emilio. [Misa cromática]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Mise
    • (Hungarian); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title; use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Miserere
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3)
  • Missa
    • (Latin); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Frescobaldi, Girolamo. [Missa sopra l'arca della monica]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Moderato/Moderatos
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Modinha/Modinhas
    • TYPE (English, Portuguese); a song usually for solo voice and guitar popular in 19th-century Brazil and Portugal; also a Brazilian dance form derived from the vocal form.
  • Morceau de concert
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Motet/Motets
    • TYPE (Czech, Dutch, English, French, Polish, Russian); use for motete, motetta, Motette, motetto, motteto, mottetto.
  • Motete
  • Motetta
    • (Hungarian); use motet.
  • Motette
  • Motetto
  • Motteto
  • Mottetto
  • Movement/Movements
    • TYPE (English); use for an independent work titled as such, not for individual movements of a larger work; use for mouvement, movimento, movimiento; see also chast', Satz, tétel.
  • Mša
    • (Czech); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Janácek, Leos. [Mša glagolskaja]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Msza
    • (Polish); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Szczypiorski, Andrzej. [Msza za miasto Arras]); use mass if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Musette/Musettes
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a dance-like piece of pastoral character whose style is suggestive of the sound of the musette or bagpipe; use for miuzet.
  • Music
    • TYPE (English); use for musica, música, Musik, musique, muzyka; see also glásba, hudba.
  • Musica
  • Música
  • Musical comedy
    • For collections of a composer's musical comedies, use the preferred title Musicals.
  • Musicals
    • TYPE (English); usually used as a conventional collective title.
  • Musik
  • Musique
  • Muzyka
N
  • Nachspiel/Nachspiele
    • TYPE (German)
  • Nachtstück
    • DISTINCTIVE (German); do not translate to "nocturne" in preferred title.
  • Négyes/Négyesek
    • TYPE (Hungarian); use only when "Quartet" or its cognates do not appear on resources embodying the work or in reference sources identifying the work (6.14.2.3.1); otherwise use quartet.
  • Night piece/Nightpiece
    • DISTINCTIVE (English); do not translate to "nocturne" in preferred title.
  • Nigun
    • DISTINCTIVE (Hebrew)
  • Noël/Noëls
    • TYPE (French)
  • Nonet/Nonets
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for noneto, Nonett, nonetto.
  • Noneto
  • Nonett
  • Nonetto
    • (Italian, Spanish); use nonet.
  • Notturno
  • Novelette
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, French)
  • Novellette/Novelleten
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
O
  • Oberek/Oberki
    • TYPE (Polish); lively Polish folk dance in triple time; use for ober, obertas, obertass.
  • Octet/Octets
    • TYPE (English); use for octeto, octuor, oktet, Oktett, ottetto.
  • Octeto
  • Octuor
  • Oda
    • (Polish, Spanish, Russian); use ode.
  • Óda
    • (Czech, Hungarian); use ode.
  • Ode/Odes
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian); use for oda, óda.
  • Offertorium
    • TYPE (English, German, Latin); chant, item of the Proper of the Mass; polyphonic settings exist from the 15th and 16th centuries; from the 17th century on, frequently performed instrumentally or vocally and not related to the prescribed liturgical term.
  • Oktet
  • Oktett
  • Oriental
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Orientale
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Ostinato/Ostinatos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for compositions in which a musical pattern is repeated many times in succession while other musical elements are generally changing.
  • Ottetto
  • Ouvertüre
    • (German); use overture unless part of a larger work. In that case use the composer's original spelling.
  • Ouverture
    • (French, Italian); use overture unless part of a larger work. In that case use the composer's original spelling.
  • Ouvertürensuite
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Overtura
    • (Hungarian); use overture unless part of a larger work. In that case use the composer's original spelling.
  • Overture/Overtures
    • TYPE (English); use for independent overtures, either non-distinctively named individual overtures or for collections of a composer's overtures. Overtures that are part of a larger work follow 6.14.2.7.1. When used as a generic title, see 6.28.1.9, exception: do not include medium of performance when the overture is for orchestra, as it is the implied medium; include medium of performance in all other cases; use for abertura, obertura, Ouvertüre, ouverture, overtura, sinfonia, uvertiura, uwertura; see also sinfonia when it is used to mean "overture."
P
  • Padovana
  • Paduana
  • Panasz
    • DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)
  • Part song/Part songs; Part-song/Part-songs; Partsong/Partsongs (provisional entry)
    • TYPE (English); a work in two or more voice parts without independent accompaniment; (however, some works may be accompanied). The problems with this type of composition continue to be unresolved. The first problem is the form of the name of the type. Until a definitive policy is issued, use the spelling the composer used. The second problem is medium of performance. Although "part song" is not included in the list of types of composition with implied medium of performance in 6.28.1.9 exception, the New Grove definition of the type lends credence to applying 6.28.1.9 exception. Examples in the authority file are inconsistent in stating the medium of performance. Until this problem is resolved, follow the treatment in established headings for a composer's works.
  • Partita/Partitas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for parte, Parthia, Parthie, Partia, Partie (German). Do not use for partie (French) which is synonymous with movement or part and is not a cognate of partita.
  • Paseo/Paseos
    • TYPE (English, Spanish); a type of ripresa or ritornello similar to the Spanish passacaglia; also used in the 17th century for keyboard variations or for compositions similar to a chaconne; use for passeo.
  • Paso/Pasos
    • TYPE (Spanish); probably comes from a Spanish dance and is most often used by 17th- and 18th-century Spanish composers of organ music.
  • Paso doble
  • Pasodoble/Pasodobles
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for paso doble.
  • Passacaglia/Passacaglias
    • TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for pasacalle, passacaille, passacalle, passakal'ia, passakaliia, passecaille.
  • Passamezzo/Passamezzos
    • TYPE (English); Italian dance of the 16th and early 17th centuries; cannot be distinguished from the pavan; use for pass'e mezo, pass'e mezzo, passing measures, passo e mezo, passomezo, passymeasures.
  • Passeo
  • Passepied/Passepieds
    • TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Italian); use for pasp'e, paspié, passe-pied, pass-pié.
  • Pastoral/Pastorals; Pastorale/Pastorales
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); LC uses the spelling with or without the final "e" depending on which spelling the composer used; use for pastoral', pasztorál.
  • Pastourelle
    • DISTINCTIVE (French); use for instrumental works.
  • Pavan/Pavans
    • TYPE (English, German); use for padovana, paduana, pavana, pavane, pavin.
  • Pavana
    • (Czech, Italian, Polish, Russian, Spanish); use pavan.
  • Pavane
  • Pavin
  • P'esa
  • Pesem/Pesmi
    • TYPE (Slovene); use as a type for vocal works; see song for treatment. For miscellaneous collections use "song", e.g., [Songs. Selections]
  • Pesnia
    • (Russian); use as the first word of a composer's distinctive title (e.g., Mussorgsky, Modest Petrovich. [Pesnia o blokhe]); use song if a generic title is appropriate.
  • Pezzo
  • Pezzo da concierto
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Phancy
  • Phansie
  • Pièce
  • Pièce de concert
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Pieza
  • Pieza da concerto
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Pisen/Pisne
    • TYPE (Czech); use for vocal works of this type in Czech; see song for treatment; when an instrumental work is titled "Pisen," treat this title as distinctive. Use for specific collections, e.g., Klein, Gideon. [Pisne, op. 1], Krása, Hans [Pisne, clarinet, viola, cello accompaniment] or as the first word of a composer's distinctive title, e.g., Martinů, Bohuslav [Pisne o Marii]. For miscellaneous collections use "song", e.g., [Songs. Selections]
  • Piva/Pive
    • TYPE (Italian); a 15th- and 16th-century Italian dance.
  • Poem
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Poema
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Poema
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Poėma
    • DISTINCTIVE (Russian)
  • Poemat
    • DISTINCTIVE (Polish)
  • Poème
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Polacca/Polaccas
    • TYPE (Italian); an Italianate piece in the style of a polonaise. Sufficiently individualized not to be considered a strict cognate.
  • Polca
    • (Italian, Portuguese, Spanish); use polka.
  • Polka/Polkas
    • TYPE (Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Polish); use for polca, pol'ka.
  • Pol'ka
  • Postludio
  • Postludium
  • Potpourri/Potpourris
    • TYPE (English, German, Hungarian, Spanish); use for popurri, popurrí, pot-pourri.
  • Pot-pourri
  • Praeambulum/Praeambula
    • TYPE (Latin)
  • Praeludium
  • Präludium
  • Prelude/Preludes
    • TYPE (English); use for Praeludium, Präludium, preliud, preliudiia, prélude, preludio, preludium, preludjum. NOTE: Liszt's tone poem entitled Les préludes is not to be considered as a type (see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21)
  • Preludio
  • Preludium
  • Presto/Prestos
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Processional/Processionals
    • TYPE (English)
  • Prolog
    • DISTINCTIVE (German, Hungarian, Russian); use for independent pieces so named. For prologues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.
  • Prologo
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian, Spanish); use for independent pieces so named. For prologues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.
  • Prologue
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, French); use for independent prologues. For prologues that are part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.
  • Psalm/Psalms
    • TYPE (English, German, Russian); use as a type for vocal works; use in the language of the original and in the singular if a single psalm is qualified in a title by the number of the psalm. Give the numeral in the numerical system used by the composer (e.g., [Psalm 116], [Psaume XLVII], [Salmo XIX]). If a composer used the single title "psalms" (or its cognates) for several psalms without indication of psalm numbers or grouped several psalms in one publication (whether psalm numbers are indicated or not), use the English plural form and (if necessary to distinguish from other psalms), the qualifying statement that best facilitates a logical arrangement of entries (e.g., Head, Michael. [Psalms], Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix. [Psalms, op. 78], Holst, Gustav. [Psalms, mixed voices, string orchestra]). Use for psalmo, psalmus, psaume, salmo, žalm; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.
  • Psalmo
  • Psalmus
  • Psaume
Q
  • Quadrille/Quadrilles
    • TYPE (English, French, German); popular 19th-century ballroom dance; use for cuadrilla, kadril', quadriglia.
  • Quadro
    • (English, German); when a work for four instruments or voices, use quartet.
  • Quartet movement
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Quartettino/Quartettinos
    • TYPE (Italian); because titles like Terzettino, Quartettino, Quintettino, etc. do not include the words trio, quartet, quintet, etc., 6.15.1.5 cannot be applied.
  • Quartetto
  • Quartettsatz
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Quintet/Quintets
    • TYPE (English); use for kvintet, quinteto, Quintett, quintette, quintetto.
  • Quintettino/Quintettinos
    • TYPE (Italian); because titles like Terzettino, Quartettino, Quintettino, etc. do not include the words trio, quartet, quintet, etc., 6.15.1.5 cannot be applied.
  • Quintetto
  • Quodlibet/Quodlibets
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish); use for kvodlibet.
R
  • Rag/Rags
    • TYPE (English)
  • Rapsodia
  • Recessional/Recessionals
    • TYPE (English)
  • Récit/Récits
    • TYPE (French); a generic term used in France during the 17th and 18th centuries for fragments or entire compositions for solo voice and, by extension, for solo instrument; also used as a title for an organ piece with a distinct melodic part, as opposed to earlier, contrapuntal organ music; use for works for solo instrument with or without accompaniment; distinctive when the title means "story" or "narrative."
  • Recitative/Recitatives
    • TYPE (English, French); use for both instrumental and vocal works; use for rechitativ, récitatif, recitativo, Rezitativ.
  • Retornelo
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish); used as an introduction or interlude to a Baroque aria or concerto. Do not treat as a type of composition.
  • Rhapsodie
  • Rhumba
  • Ricercare/Ricercars/Ricercari
    • TYPE (English, Italian); generally, a type of instrumental piece common during the 16th and 17th centuries; because there is no single accepted English form of name for either the singular or plural of this type, use the form used by the composer and maintain that form throughout for that composer; if the composer used no plural form, use Ricercars; use for recercada, Ricercar, richerkar.
  • Rigaudon/Rigaudons
    • TYPE (French, German, Hungarian); use for rigadoon, rigodon, rigodón.
  • Rigodon
  • Ritornello/Ritornelli
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Ritournelle/Ritournelles
    • TYPE (French)
  • Romance/Romances
    • TYPE (English, French, Spanish); a 16th- to 17th-century Spanish ballade (also Romanza), an 18th-century French song, and a 19th-century instrumental work. If an instrumental work, use the English form. Use for instrumental works titled romans, Romanza, romanze. If a vocal work, use the form of the language of the text; see also romans, romanza (Italian), romanza (Spanish), Romanze; when in English, apply 6.15.1.10 and name the type of solo voice.
  • Romanzetta/Romanzettas
    • TYPE (Italian); use for both vocal and instrumental works.
  • Rondeau/Rondeaux
    • TYPE (French); use as a type only for the "form fixe" vocal work of the 13th to 15th centuries, and as the refrain form used in the suites of the Baroque era. If encountered as the French variant of the repeat form of the late 18th and 19th centuries, use rondo.
  • Rondel
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Rondino/Rondinos
    • TYPE (English)
  • Rondo/Rondos
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for rondó, rondò.
  • Rondó
  • Rondò
  • Rondoletto/Rondolettos
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Round/Rounds
    • TYPE (English); a short perpetual canon in which all the parts sound at the same pitch or at an octave to it; see also Rundgesang.
  • Rumba/Rumbas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a popular recreational dance of Afro-Cuban origin, in syncopated duple metre with a repetitive melody and an ostinato one-bar rhythmic pattern played in the accompaniment; use for rhumba.
S
  • Salmo
  • Saltarello/Saltarellos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for saltarelle, sal'tarello, saltarelo.
  • Salve Regina
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3)
  • Samba/Sambas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish)
  • Samospev/Samospevi
    • TYPE (Slovene); use as a type for vocal works; see song for treatment. For miscellaneous collections use "song", e.g., [Songs. Selections]
  • Sanctus
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3)
  • Sarabanda
  • Sarabande
  • Sardana/Sardanas
    • TYPE (Spanish)
  • Scherzando/Scherzandos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish)
  • Scherzettino/Scherzettinos
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Scherzetto/Scherzetti
    • TYPE (English)
  • Scherzino/Scherzinos
    • TYPE English, Italian)
  • Scherzo/Scherzos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for skertso, squerzo.
  • Seguidilla/Seguidillas
    • TYPE (Spanish); use "Seguidilla/Seguidillas" and medium statement for vocal works. For an instrumental work, consider it a dance and use the plural form of the term, "Seguidillas," for both singular and plural forms, with medium statement.
  • Sekstet
  • Septet/Septets
    • TYPE (English, Russian); use for septeto, Septett, septimino, septuor, settimino.
  • Septeto
  • Septett
  • Septimino
  • Septuor
  • Serenade/Serenades
    • TYPE (English, French); use this form for both instrumental and vocal works when it is the composer's original title; use for serenada, serenata; see also seresta, Ständchen.
  • Seresta/Serestas
    • TYPE (Portuguese); the title means "serenade"; use this form for both instrumental and vocal works when it is the composer's original title; see also serenade, Ständchen.
  • Service/Services
    • TYPE (English); a term used in the Anglican liturgy to refer to musical settings of the canticles for Matins (Morning prayer) and Evensong, and of certain parts of the Communion service; apply 6.28.1.9 exception and do not normally include a statement of medium of performance; regard any title in which "service" is modified by something other than medium or key as distinctive.
  • Sestetto
  • Setting
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Settimino
  • Sevillana/Sevillanas
    • TYPE (Spanish)
  • Sextet/Sextets
    • TYPE (English); use for sekstet, sestetto, sexteto, Sextett, sextuor.
  • Sexteto
  • Sextett
  • Sextuor
  • Siciliana/Sicilianas
    • TYPE (English); use for ciciliano, sicilien, siciliene, sicilienne, siciliano, sitsiliana, siziliano.
  • Simphony
    • Variant spelling of symphony; use symphony.
  • Sinfonia/Sinfonie
    • TYPE (Italian); cognate for symphony. When the term represents the multi-movement work of the 18th to 20th centuries, use symphony. NOTE: the term also represents several separate types of Italian Baroque compositions, one of which (the tri-partite opera overture) was one of the precursors of the modern symphony. When used to represent any of these Baroque compositions, the term should not be normalized to symphony; use sinfonia/sinfonie. However, the German "Sinfonie" (plural is Sinfonien) (a cognate of symphony) should be normalized to symphony.
  • Sinfonia/Sinfonie
    • TYPE (Italian); use this term when it is used to mean an independent overture; see also overture.
  • Sinfonia da camera
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, Italian)
  • Sinfonie
    • The German cognate for symphony and the Italian plural of sinfonia. When it represents the 18th- to 20th-century multi-movement work use symphony. When it represents the plural of the Italian Baroque sinfonia, use "Sinfonie."
  • Sinfonie da camera
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Sinfonietta/Sinfoniettas
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian); apply 6.28.1.9 exception; use for simfonietta, simphonietta, symfoniieta, symphonietta, symphoniette.
  • Sketch
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Skizze
    • DISTINCTIVE (German); for "sketch."
  • Solfeggietto/Solfeggietti
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Solfeggio/Solfeggios
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian); use for sol'fedzhio, sol'fedzho, solfège, solfeo.
  • Solo/Solos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a work for a solo instrument, unaccompanied or accompanied by one or more instruments.
  • Solo de concours
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Solo piece
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Solostück
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Solostykke
    • DISTINCTIVE (Danish, Norwegian)
  • Son/Sones
    • TYPE (Spanish); a generic term for Latin American rural or peasant music, both vocal and instrumental, in various forms; an unequal triple rhythm (sesquialtera) is a common feature.
  • Sonata/Sonatas
    • TYPE (English, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for sonate.
  • Sonata da camera
    • DISTINCTIVE (English, French, Italian, Spanish)
  • Sonata da chiesa
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian); a Baroque instrumental work, often in 4 movements that replaced the organ solos that had regularly been substituted for elements of the Proper at Mass and Vespers.
  • Sonata de cámara
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Sonata movement/Sonata movements
    • TYPE (English)
  • Sonate
    • (French, German); use sonata.
  • Sonate da camera
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Sonate de chambre
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Sonatensatz/Sonatensätze
    • TYPE (German)
  • Sonatille/Sonatilles
    • TYPE (English, French); a type of "mini sonata."
  • Sonatina da camera
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian)
  • Sonatine
  • Song/Songs
    • TYPE (English); use as a type for vocal works; apply 6.28.1.9 exception: do not add a medium of performance for works with the preferred title Songs, Lieder, etc. unless it differs from the implied medium of solo voice(s) with accompaniment for keyboard instrument (this does not apply to songs in a popular medium). Apply 6.15.1.12: accompaniment for works with the preferred title Songs, Lieder, etc.: when the work is accompanied by any medium other than a keyboard instrument, add the name(s) of the instrument(s) followed by "accompaniment." If the work is unaccompanied, add "unaccompanied" as the medium of performance. Use only for miscellaneous sets, e.g., [Songs], [Songs. Selections] and specific collections, e.g., [Songs, op. 14], [Songs, op. 56. Maid sings light]. For other languages see canción, canzone, chanson, dal, Gesang, laulu, Lied, melodie, pesem, pisen, romance, samospev; use for sång; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.
  • Sortie
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Sousedská/Sousedsky
    • TYPE (Czech)
  • Spielmusik
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
  • Spiritual/Spirituals
    • TYPE (English); use as a type for vocal works; a type of folksong that originated in American revivalist activity between 1740 and the close of the 19th century; treat as a type for vocal works; use for spirichuėl; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.
  • Squerzo
  • Stabat Mater
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3)
  • Ständchen
    • TYPE (German); the title means "serenade"; use this form for both instrumental and vocal works when it is the composer's original title; see also serenade, seresta.
  • Strόfa
  • Strophe/Strophen
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for strofa, estrofa, strόfa.
  • Suite/Suites
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for siuita.
  • Symphonette/Symphonettes
    • TYPE (English); apply 6.28.1.9 exception: add a statement of medium of performance only when not for the implied medium of orchestra.
  • Symphonie
  • Symphonie de chambre
    • DISTINCTIVE (French)
  • Symphony/Symphonies
    • TYPE (English); form of the multi-movement work of the 18th to 20th centuries; use for simfoniia, Simphonie, Simphony, Symphonie, and (when this type of composition) for the Italian "sinfonia" and the German "Sinfonie." However, the Italian Baroque "sinfonia" (plural, Sinfonie) is a different type of composition and should not be normalized to symphony.
T
  • Tambourin/Tambourins
    • TYPE (English, French); an 18th-century French dance with a lively melody and regular, static bass simulating a drum, usually in duple meter; found in the theatrical works of Rameau and others and as purely instrumental works.
  • Tánc
  • Tango/Tangos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish)
  • Taniec
  • Tanz
  • Te Deum
    • TYPE (Latin); liturgical (see note 3)
  • Tema
    • (Italian, Spanish, Russian); use only as the first word of a combination title (e.g., [Tema con variazioni ...]). When it occurs alone, use theme.
  • Tentet
  • Terentelle
    • Variant spelling of tarantella/tarentelle; use tarantella.
  • Terzett
    • (German); use trio.
  • Terzettino/Terzettinos
    • TYPE (Italian); because titles like Terzettino, Quartettino, Quintettino, etc. do not include the words trio, quartet, quintet, etc., rule 6.15.1.5 cannot be applied; for terzetto use trio.
  • Terzetto
    • (Italian); use trio.
  • Tétel/Tételek
    • TYPE (Hungarian); for "movement"; usually refers to an independent work; use for an independent work entitled as such, not for individual movements of a larger work; see also chast', movement, Satz.
  • Thema
    • (German); use only as the first word of a combination title (e.g., [Thema und Variationen ...]). When it occurs alone, use theme.
  • Theme/Themes
    • TYPE (English); generally use in combination with the term "variations"; in such a case use the language of the original title and treat the resulting phrase as a type of composition (e.g., [Theme and variations, piano], [Thème et variations, orchestra], [Thema und Variationen, guitar], [Tema con variazioni, violin, piano]). It should also be considered as a type of composition on the rare occasion when it occurs alone. In this case use the English form; use for tema, Thema, thème.
  • Thème
    • (French); use only as the first word of a combination title (e.g., [Thème et variations, orchestra]). When it occurs alone, use theme.
  • Tiento/Tientos
    • TYPE (Spanish)
  • Toccata/Toccatas
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); use for tocata, tokkata.
  • Toccatina/Toccatinas
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Tonadilla/Tonadillas
    • DISTINCTIVE (Spanish)
  • Tone poem
    • For collections of a composer's works in this genre, use symphonic poems.
  • Toy/Toys
    • TYPE (English); a short, light piece for lute or virginal, simple in form and light in texture; use for 16th- and 17th-century works; for post-17th-century works, treat the term as distinctive.
  • Toye
    • (English); use toy.
  • Trio/Trios
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Russian, Spanish); use for Terzett, terzetto.
  • Trio sonata/Trio sonatas
    • TYPE (English); use for sonata en trio, sonate á tre, sonate en trio, trio-sonata, Triosonate.
  • Triple concerto
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Triptych
    • DISTINCTIVE (English)
  • Trumpet tune/Trumpet tunes
    • TYPE (English)
  • Tune/Tunes
    • TYPE (English)
U
  • Übung/Übungen
    • TYPE (German); treat as a type of composition when the term is used to mean "study," "etude," etc.; see also exercise.
V
  • Val's
  • Vals
  • Valse
    • (French); use waltz. Note: Ravel's La valse is to be considered distinctive (see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21)
  • Valzer
  • Variant
    • DISTINCTIVE (English); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; for works in the form of variations, use variation.
  • Variante
    • DISTINCTIVE (French); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; for works in the form of variations, use variation.
  • Varianten
    • DISTINCTIVE (German); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; for works in the form of variations, use variation.
  • Varianti
    • DISTINCTIVE (Italian); for works not in the form of variations, use this form; for works in the form of variations, use variation.
  • Variation/Variations
    • TYPE (English, French, German); use for variación, variant, variante, Varianten, varianti, variatsiia, variazione, except when the first word of a distinctive title, when used in a combination title (e.g., [Tema e variazione]), or for works not in the form of variations.
  • Vázlatok
    • DISTINCTIVE (Hungarian)
  • Veränderung/Veränderungen
    • TYPE (German); treat as a type of composition when the term is used to mean "variations."
  • Vers
  • Verse/Verses
    • TYPE (English); consider to be a type when written for organ; when written for any other medium, treat a work with this title as DISTINCTIVE (see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21); use for versus.
  • Verset/Versets
    • TYPE (English, French); consider to be a type when written for organ; when written for any other medium, treat a work with this title as DISTINCTIVE (see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21); use for vers, Versett, versetto, versettus, versiculo, verso.
  • Versett
  • Versetto
  • Versettus
  • Versiculo
  • Verso
  • Versus
  • Vesper/Vespers
    • TYPE (English, German); liturgical (see note 3); use for vechernia, vesperae, vêpres, vespro, vísperas.
  • Villancico/Villancicos
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish); a Spanish vocal work for one or more voices with refrain. Use without specification of medium except in case of conflicts; use for vil'iansiko.
  • Villanella/Villanelle
    • TYPE (English, Italian, Russian, Spanish); a form of "light vocal music popular in Italy and elsewhere from the 1530s to the early 17th century"--New Grove. Use "villanella" for the singular and "villanelle" for the plural. Do not confuse the plural with the French "villanelle."
  • Villanelle/Villanelles
    • TYPE (French); a 16th- to 17th-century French country dance or song, and an 18th- to 20th-century instrumental piece. Do not confuse with the Italian "villanella" (plural "villanelle"). NOTE: Also the German form of "villanella." When found in this context, use the Italian singular and plural forms.
  • Vivace/Vivaces
    • TYPE (English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, Russian)
  • Vivo/Vivos
    • TYPE (Italian)
  • Vocalise/Vocalises
    • TYPE (English, French); use as a type for vocal works; see song for treatment. Use for vocalización, vocalizzo, Vokalise, vokaliz; DISTINCTIVE for instrumental works; see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21.
  • Vocalización
  • Volta/Volte
    • TYPE (English, German, Italian, Spanish); an early 17th-century dance; use for lavolta, volte (the French singular form of the term)
  • Volte
    • (French); use volta for the singular form of this term
  • Voluntary/Voluntaries
    • TYPE (English)
  • Vorspiel/Vorspiele
    • TYPE (German); use for independent works titled as such; when part of a larger work, apply 6.14.2.7.1.
W
  • Waltz/Waltzes
    • TYPE (English); use for vals, val's, valse, valzer, Walzer. Note: Ravel's La valse is to be considered distinctive (see 6.14.2.5 in Best practices for music cataloging using RDA and MARC 21)
  • Walzer
  • Wiegenlied
    • DISTINCTIVE (German)
X
Z
  • Žalm
  • Zapateado/Zapateados
    • TYPE (Spanish); a solo dance in triple time in which rhythm is marked by stamping of the heels; use for tsapateado, zapateao.
  • Zhiga
  • Zortzico/Zortzicos
    • TYPE (Spanish); Basque folk song or dance in 5/4 time with dotted rhythms; use for sortsiko, zorcico, zortciko, Zortziko.
  • Zwiefacher/Zwiefache
    • TYPE (German); a German folk dance with regular alternation between duple and triple meter.
  • Zwischenspiel/Zwischenspiele
    • TYPE (German)