Originally Posted to the Task Force Group Blog By Kevin S. Kishimoto, Friday, December 12, 2014
2.4--BibFrame AV Modeling Study
This report, written by Kara Van Malssen of AVPreserve with contributions by Caitlin Hunter and Andrea Leigh of LC, identifies some special requirements for the description and discovery of audiovisual resources, and explores ways that these needs could be met within BIBFRAME by proposing a generic content model which would slightly alter bf’s current content model and profiles.
The report is divided into five sections:
In the introduction, the common types of moving image and recorded sound resources held in library and archive collections are listed, demonstrating the variety of content that is encompassed in this broad category. While the content of these resources can vary greatly, several shared characteristics of audiovisual resources should be considered in description, discovery, and access: 1) time-based nature, making apparent the relationship to events and necessity of machine playback; 2) tendency to have multiple creators and contributors; 3) higher occurrence of unique or unpublished content; 4) tendency be aggregates and collections, often with repurposed content; 5) specialized preservation and migration requirements.
The second section is a “Comparative analysis of existing content models” in which various models’ treatments of content and carrier are discussed. The section compares how FRBR, RDA, FIAF, OLAC, Variations3, PBCore, EBU Core, and indecs each define concepts like Work, Expression, Manifestation, Item, Agent, Event, Place, and Content. A strong point is made that most of these models are not able “to describe an event as the content itself” in cases when the content is “not a work in the mind of a creator.” The report emphasizes that an ideal content model would allow both work-centric and event-centric approaches for description.
The third section covers the “Requirements for moving image and recorded sound content at the Library of Congress.” Since LC is the world’s largest audiovisual archive with many diverse types of resources, the requirements of the MBRS Division could provide a good illustration of the requirements for audiovisual description of the various communities at large.
In the fourth section, the authors propose a generic content description data model that would allow one to describe content based on a work or an event or both, depending upon the type of resource and needs of the cataloger / institution, and also allow more technical data about the carrier to be recorded.
No matter what the content or the organizational context, the option to capture any or all of these aspects involved in the creation of the resources must be available to the cataloger and other humans or machines that may want to contribute descriptions and relationships over time. [...] Rather than be forced to compromise descriptive detail by making it fit into a model that is not aligned with the content type, or use vocabularies built for a specific, unrelated purpose, the cataloger should be able to easily describe any given resource using a shared model. [page 25 of report]
The report also gives examples with diagrams of various resources depicted using this generic model.
In the final section, the report makes recommendations for the BIBFRAME model to better accommodate the description of the various types of moving image and recorded sound resources.
Position BIBFRAME to not be exclusively work-centric, but optionally event-centric, or straddle the line between the two as needed;
Create a super-class for bf:Content;
Make clear that several types can be designated for a bf:Work and bf:Instance;
Modify domain restrictions on some properties, and add additional domains for others;
Consider adopting technical attributes for moving image and recorded sound instances;
Annotation should be extended to include some of the FRBR/RDA item attributes;
Consider adding date and dateType properties;
Investigate ways of enabling sequences;
Investigate support for including time-stamps in descriptions of audiovisual content.